• Scientists- Living. 1. Dr. Ashoke Sen. Birth 1956 India       He won, what is considered as the ‘Russian Nobel prize for physics, nominated by Stephen Hawkins. His work on string theory, a highly ...
    Posted Jul 19, 2018, 9:17 PM by Upali Salpadoru
  • Scientists - modern. AB1. Berners-LeeSir Timothy Berners-Lee 1955- Life-A British computer scientist, Contributions-He found the "World wide web”He proposed to share the information with the ...
    Posted Sep 9, 2022, 11:06 PM by Upali Salpadoru
  • Scientists- Ancient. " Science entered a new era with the Renaissance, which began in 14th century Italy. By the 17th century it had extended and blossomed throughout most of Europe." Famous scientists.A ...
    Posted May 31, 2019, 12:12 AM by Upali Salpadoru
  • Neils Bohr. Neils Bohr 1885 -1962 A Danish stamp issued in 1963.1885Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.Father- Christian Bohr, a celebrated Physician.Mother -Ellen Adler coming from ...
    Posted Jul 21, 2019, 2:39 AM by Upali Salpadoru
  • Edward Jenner. Dr.Edward Jenner.      1749 – 1823 U.KFather of Immunology.Created a Landmark in medical treatments by creating a vaccination for the deadly disease small pox. 1749      Born in Berkley ...
    Posted Jul 11, 2022, 11:54 PM by Upali Salpadoru
Showing posts 1 - 5 of 33. View more »

Scientists- Living.

posted Jan 20, 2018, 1:01 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 19, 2018, 9:17 PM ]

1. Dr. Ashoke Sen. Birth 1956 India

      He won, what is considered as the ‘Russian Nobel prize for physics, nominated by Stephen Hawkins. His work on string theory, a highly advanced mathematical concept on universe, and black holes has been recognised. His booty consists of $ 3 million on which he is willing to pay tax though some institutions are clamouring to wave it off. He is married to another physicist Sumathi Rao and has no children. He works at Harischandra Institute in Alahabad.

Scientists - modern.

posted Jan 15, 2018, 1:26 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Sep 9, 2022, 11:06 PM ]


1. Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy Berners-Lee 1955-


A British computer scientist,


He found the "World wide web”

He proposed to share the information with the world wide web using HTTP. (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

He made the first web site in 1991.

Awards and accolades-

Knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

He was named in Time magazine's list of the 100 most important people of the 20th Century.. He was received the Turing award, which is considered as the Nobel Prize for computing. It carried $1 million prize, with financial support provided by Google, Inc.

2. Bohr Neils.
Niels Bohr --


He showed that the electrons orbited at definite levels and they emitted energy as they descend.
He predicted the existence of a new  element, which was named hafnium.
He was involved with the establishment of CERN 

In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
The element Bohrium was named to honour him

     He had problems with the Nazis and escaped to Britain.
      After the war, Bohr called for international cooperation on nuclear energy. 


Crick Francis

Francis Crick 1916-2004

and James Watson (b. 1928) together discovered the double helix structure of DNA, the "blueprint of life." Surprisingly,

Curie Marie

Marie Curie Curie Marie . 1867-1934

Click for more information.

Working closely with her husband she discovered the elements Polonium and Radium.



Einstein Albert

Albert Einstein  Einstein Albert.       1879-1955

Click for information.

May have revolutionized scientific thought


Fermi Enrico

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) first became interested in physics when he was 14 years old. His brother had just died unexpectedly, and while looking for an escape from reality,

Richard P Feynman 1918 – 1988  US.   

 You can encode the whole of Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin”. 

So said, ‘One of the funniest fellows who ever juggled a bunch of atoms’. 


Goddard Robert

Robert Goddard (1882-1945), considered by many to be the father of modern rocketry, was the very first to successfully launch a liquid-fueled rocket.


Hubble Edwin

Sir Edwin Hubble.1889 – 1953 (US)



He showed that 

i. the Universe is not confined only to the milky way .

ii. The distant galaxies are moving away from each other at very high velocities.

Awards and Accolades-

The Hubble Telescope’ will be surveying the universe for many more years to come.


He was not awarded the Nobel prize as, at the time,  astronomy was not included in the physics category.

Hawking Stephen

Prof.Stephen Hawking. 1942-2018. UK


As a teenager he was nicknamed as 'Einstein'


He showed

i. the Universe began as a singularity.

ii.the existence of Hawking’s radiation from Black holes.

Awards and Accolades-

He ascended to the chair that Sir

Isaac Newton held.

Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.


Generally considered as the most brilliant scientist since Einstein.

A question answered:-  

How is gold produced?

The collision of neutron stars is one way of producing gold. It can also be formed from fast neutron capture in supernovas. Gold is rare everywhere, not just on Earth. The reason it's rare is that by nuclear-binding energy peaks at iron, making it hard to produce heavier elements in general. Also strong electromagnetic repulsion must be overcome by the nuclear force in order to form stable heavy nuclei like gold.







Glen Martin  b 1981- New Zealand


Over thirty  years   he mortgaged his house three times.

In 1998 he started the Martin Aircraft Co


In 1997 the Jet back was ready. His wife Vanessa was the pilot.

Thes Martin Aircraft's prototype 12 can fly more than 30 minutes at speeds up to 74 kilometers an hour and at altitudes above 3000 feet.


In 2010 Time magazine named this to be among the 50 best inventions of the year.






  1. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) studied drooling dogs. While that may seem like an odd thing to research, Pavlov made some fascinating and important observations by studying when, how, and why dogs drooled when introduced to varied, controlled stimuli. During this research, Pavlov discovered "conditioned reflexes."

Plank Max

Max Planck,1858 – 1947.
German.b 23 April 1858-1947,

He showed that the light comes in packets instead of continuous wave.
This led to the quantum theory 1900.

Awards and Accolades-
In 1905 Einstein used to explain the photo electric effect.
In 1913 Neils Bohr
improved the model of the atom using his theories.
In 1918 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.

He changed the fundamentals in physics.






Jonas Salk
He invented a vaccine for polio.










Scientists- Ancient.

posted Nov 26, 2016, 5:57 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated May 31, 2019, 12:12 AM ]

" Science entered a new era with the Renaissance, which began in 14th century Italy. By the 17th century it had extended and blossomed throughout most of Europe."

Famous scientists.



Main Achievements.

Archimedes  Greek

.287BC - 212 BC.


“One of the greatest scientists

of the ancient world”.

1.The surface area of a sphere is 4 times the radius of a circle having the same radius.

Area =4πr2.Volume =4/3πr3

2. calculated pi(π) to the most precise value known. π=22/7.

3.Mechanical advantage of levers and pulleys.

4. “When an object is immersed in a fluid, the upthrust is equal to the weight of water displaced” Archim



 Christiaan Huygens, Dutch: 1629 –  1695.
Born of wealthy and influential parents , had a comfortable adulthood but suffered from ill health at the end.

"Huygens visited London in 1689 and met Sir Isaac Newton and lectured on his own theory of gravitation before the Royal Society. ......., he regarded (Newtons) theory of gravity that was devoid of any mechanical explanation as fundamentally unacceptable."
Encyclopedia Britannica.

  • He grounded lenses, made telescopes and observed the rings of Saturn and discovered Titan.
  • Invented the pendulum clock/
  • He showed that light. contrary to the belief of Newton progresses in the form of a wave.
  • He discovered the formula to obtain the centripetal force.  
  • Fc = mv2/r


Darwin Charles.  England, 1809— 1882.

One of the greatest naturalists that ever lived.

"While his brother continued to be trained as a doctor Charles had to give it up as the sight of blood made him sick"
"He collected beetles with a passion"

  • He introduced the  "Theory of evolution due to natural selection". along with Russel Wallace.
  • Explained the formation of Coral Islands.

René Descartes France           born 31/3/ 1596,.


He devised the  Cartesian coordinate system. (Graphs with X and Y axis).

He made numerous advances in optics, such as his study of the reflection


“Considering how many different opinions there are,.. while it is impossible for more than one to be true, i regarded them as little better than false.”



"Faraday,  Michael. England 1791-1867 .

  •  Discovered Electromagnetism  which led to  the electric motor and the dynamo.
  • He found that the light can be influenced by magnetism laying the foundation for the electromagnetic theory.

Benjamin Franklin  .  US.  
Born:   1706     Died:-1790

Despite of merely 2 years of schooling he accumulated wealth, freed 2 slaves and became the first American ambassador in France.
  • He sent a kite to the clouds and showed that lightning is only an electric spark of high magnitude.

  • He named the electrical charges as positive and negative.

  • He designed the lightning conductor, urinal catheter and the bifocal lenses

Courtesy;- How stuff Works.


Galileo Galilee , Italy, 1564 – 1642.
  • He brought the experimental and mathematical approach to science.    
  • Built telescopes and made many astronomical discoveries.
  • He popularised the heliocentric model of the solar system and antagonized the church.
  • He discovered certain laws of motion that became the groundwork  for Newton and Einstein.

Luigi Galvani, Italy

born”-  9/9/1737, —died:- 1798


  • Later, Galvani was able to cause muscular contraction by touching the frog’s nerve with different metals.

  • After further experimenting with natural lightning and  frictional electricity, he concluded that animal tissue contained a form which he  termed "animal electricity."

William Gilbert .English

born:; 24/5/ 1544. died:-1602

Gilbert.jpgPhysician, astronomer and scientist

  • He was the first to differentiate the attraction by rubbed amber from the attraction of lodestones.

  • He coined the word electricity to the amber effect.

  • The book he published De Magnete became the standard book on electricity and magnetism all over europe for 200 years.

  • He discovered geo magnetism.


.Harold Urey..  American. 1893 – 1981.
  • Noble Prize in chemistry 1934."for his discovery of heavy hydrogen,deuterium "
  • he discovered how our planet’s previous climates can be found from the ratio of oxygen isotopes in carbonate rocks

  • Stanley Miller-Urey experiment proved that the building blocks of life could have been formed naturally due to lightening in the early atmosphere.

  • William Harvey England. 1Harvey.jpg

  • 578-1

  • 657)

He showed that the blood is pushed out of the heart through the arteries and that they return through the veins. (He was not able to notice the capillaries)

Royal Physician to two consecutive kings, James 1. And Charles 1.

He was able to discover these by dissecting non- anesthetized live animals.

Robert Hooke. England.

Birth: 18/7/1635. death: 1703


  • Robert Hooke coined the term "cells": The empty dead  cells of cork reminded him of the cells of a monastery.

  • He popularised the use of microscope by publishing his findings in a book “Microhraphia”.

  • He stated the Elasticity law that is now known as the Hooke’s Law.

  • Investigated refraction and supported  deducing the wave theory of light.

  • He showed that matter expands when heated and that air consists of particles dispersed in empty space.

  • After the London fire in 1666 he re designed some London streets and buildings as an architect




Johannes Kepler,, 1571-1630, Weil der Stadt, Württemberg [Germany]


  • He defended the Copernican system of planetary motion. 
  • Using the precise data that Tycho Brahe  had collected, he discovered that the orbit of Mars was not a circle but an ellipse.
  • A line from the centre of the sun to the centre of a planet will cover equal areas at the same time. 
“ If the sun and planets go round the earth how can Mercury and Venus be always on the side of the sun?”
“I much prefer the sharpest criticism of a single intelligent man to the thoughtless approval of the masses.”

Lord Kelvin, William Thomson, -Scottish - 1824



    • He devised the Absolute scale of temperature, which bears his name now.
  • He was responsible for laying the telegraph cable under the Atlantic.
  • Devised many instruments for his experiments including Ammeter, Voltmeter etc.
  • Stated the second law of Thermodynamics.


Antoine Lavoisier. French.  1743 – 1794



  • He showed that the mass of the products after a chemical change is equal to the mass of the reactants . This disproved the hereto accepted Phlogiston theory..

  • He helped to adopt the Metric system of weights and measures.

  • Helped the nomenclature of chemicals.

“It took them only an instant to cut off that head, and a hundred years may not produce another like it.” Joseph-Louis Lagrange,.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch

Birth 1632 - 1723


Made improvements to the compound microscope by finely grinding the lenses.

He was the first to observe and described the uni cellular organisms.

He was also the first to record and observe muscle fibres, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries.


Leonardo da Vinci. Italy.

birth:- 15/5/1452 death:-1519.


“The most diversely talented person ever to have lived”.


"the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".[1]

He was the first to imagine and sketch the following:-


Swinging bridge,Paddle boat

Auto vehicleand tanks.

Hei was a sculptor, designer of costumes.

An architect, musician, engineer, scientist mathematician and inventor.




Dmitri Mendeleev. Russian.  1834 - 1907.

Click the name for more.

He stated the Periodic law and The Periodic table of the elements which ha become the foundation for the study of chemistry.

Discovered the elements gallium, scandium and germanium.

Predicted the existence of several elements using the Periodic table.


Sir Isaac Newton. UK.  1642 - 1727.        



Joseph Priestley England,



  • He disproved the age old adage that ‘ air is a simple elementary substance, indestructible and unalterable’

  • He made oxygen by heating mercury oxide using the rays of the sun.

  • He invented carbonated water and the rubber eraser,

  • He recognised the natural cycle of photosynthesis and respiration.

  • Invented the rubber eraser.

Once a mob sacked and burnt his house and laboratory.

Finally Priestley left England in 1794 and continued his work in America until his death”....chemistry for life.




Carl Wilhelm Scheele,  1742-1786 Swedish,Germany— German


An apothecary turned chemist.

  • He discovered 8 elements. oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine,fluorine, manganese.barium,molybdenum,and tungstan. he 
  • "hard-luck Scheele"- Isaac Asimov. As he was unable to get credit for many of his discoveries.

Alessandro Volta, Italian.

1745 -1827.                


  • He disagreed with Galvani and produced electricity using chemicals. Voltaic cell.

  • He found methane at Lake Maggiore,[

  • He identified potential difference, charge and capacity.

  • The invention of the battery lifted Volta's fame to its pinnacle. He was called to France by Napoleon in 1801 for a kind of "command performance" of his experiments. He received many medals and decorations, including the Legion of Honor, and was even made a count and, in 1810, a senator of the kingdom of Lombardy Volta received his greatest honor, however, at the hands of no ruler, but of his fellow scientists. The unit of electromotive force- the driving force that moves the electric current- is now called the "volt."


Neils Bohr.

posted Nov 23, 2016, 4:57 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 21, 2019, 2:39 AM ]


Neils Bohr

1885 -1962

A Danish stamp issued in 1963.


Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Father- Christian Bohr, a celebrated Physician.

Mother -Ellen Adler coming from a well educated rich family.

  Niels Bohr proposed a model for the hydrogen atom.
  He showed that the energy is transferred only in certain well defined quantities. 
  Electrons should move around  only in prescribed orbits. 
It was due to this that we know the properties of elements depend on the number of valency electrons.
  When jumping from one orbit to another with lower energy, a light is emitted. 
  Bohr's theory could explain why atoms emitted light in fixed wavelengths.

1891 Age 6 Yrs.

 Niel entered the Grammelholms school. In his class of about 20 students, he did well usually coming third or fourth..

1898 Age 12 Yrs.

His teacher found it difficult to cope up. He often found errors in his text books. It was his father who guided him in physics and mathematics more than the teachers.

“My interest in the study of physics was awakened while I was still in school, largely owing to the influence of my father”.

As a student he won a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences in Copenhagen for solving a physics problem.

1903 Age 18 yrs.  

Entered Copenhagen University.

1909 Age 24 yrs.  

Master's degree in Physics.

He was a passionate football player and used to play along with his brother Harald Bohr who represented the Danish national team.

1911Age 26 yrs.  

Obtained the PhD for his theoretical research on the    properties of the metals according to Max Planck's early quantum theory which described energy as tiny particles, or quanta.

On a post graduate scholarship he was selected to work at Cambridge, UK with Nobel Laureate J.J. Thomson. The association did not go according to expectations. He was not impressed by the research work there.   

1912 Age 27 yrs.

Bohr moved to Manchester to work with Sir Ernest Rutherford.

Fig.2.Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund.

He started working with Professor Rutherford  in Manchester and was able to make considerable improvements to the nuclear model of the atom.

The families of Bohr and Rutherford became intimate, life long friends.

1913 Age 28 yrs.  

Lecturer in Physics at Copenhagen University.

Fig.3.Courtesy: Encyclopedia Britannica.

According to him when the electrons absorb energy, they make an instant jump to a higher orbit. When they emit electromagnetic radiation they come down to a lower orbit.

The chemical element Bohrium , Bh, Atomic No. 107 was named after him.

This model came to be known as the Rutherford -Bohr model of the atom.                     

1914 Age 29 yrs.  

He became a lecturer at the  the Victoria University in Manchester.

1916 Age 31 yrs.

Became the  professor in theoretical physics at Copenhagen University.

1921 Age 35 yrs.

He founded The Institute of Theoretical Physics, which bears his name now.

1922 Age 37 yrs.

He was awarded the Nobel prize in Physics .

The Carlsberg brewery gave him a house, next to the brewery with a direct pipeline for free beer.

1926 to 1927  

Werner Heisenberg worked as an assistant to Bohr.

1927 Age 41 yrs.  

Along with Werner Heisenberg and other scientists he introduced  the quantum mechanics principle at an Italian conference.

He developed the concept of complementarity, a key principle in quantum mechanics. According to this certain properties cannot be observed or measured at the same time. A good example would be the nature of light which can be observed or measured as a wave or a particle but not at the same time.


Fig.4. Neils Bohr pondering over the thought experiments of Einstein.

Einstein was very reluctant to accept quantum mechanics. He continued to harass Bohr with thought experiments which Bohr used to answer defending the quantum theory.

He predicted the existence of a new element which was later found and named as hafnium , the latin name for Copenhagen.

1943 Age 58 yrs.   

He fled to Sweden and from there to  Britain as Nazis wanted to arrest him.

In Britain he worked on a nuclear weapons project and assisted the Manhattan project in America.         

Fig.5. Mr and Mrs Bohr.

1954 Age 69 Yrs.

He played a major role in starting particle physics research facility, CERN.” Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire.

1955 Age 70 Yrs.

He took a leading role at the ‘Atoms for Peace Conference.’

1957  Age 72 yrs.        

He got the “Atoms for peace award.”

1962 Age 77 Yrs.

Bohr died in Copenhagen.


A Danish stamp honored Bohr on the 50th anniversary of his atomic theory.




One of  his sons Aage Bohr, received the Nobel Prize.

The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection".

"During my early childhood, my parents lived at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (now the Niels Bohr Institute), and the remarkable generation of scientists who came to join my father in his work became for us children Uncle Kramers, Uncle Klein, Uncle Nishina, Unc  Uncle Heisenberg, Uncle Pauli, etc."

Edward Jenner.

posted Feb 29, 2016, 7:16 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 11, 2022, 11:54 PM ]

Dr.Edward Jenner.      1749 – 1823 U.K

Father of Immunology.

Created a Landmark in medical treatments by creating a vaccination for the deadly disease small pox.



  Born in Berkley Gloucestershire. His father was a clergyman. He was the eighth of the nine children born to Reverend Stephen Jenner, and his wife Sarah.

1755  Age 6 yrs.

  Jenner went to school in Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester 

1763   Age 14 Yrs.

   He became an apprentice to  Dr. Daniel Ludlow, for seven years.

1770   Age 21 yrs.

   He moved to St. George's Hospital in London.

1772    Age 23 yrs.

  He returned to Berkley after some training in London and became a general practitioner. Showed a keen interest in wild life.

1788    Age 38 yrs.

   He married. Catharine Kingscote

1796   Age 46 yrs.

   He inserted pus taken from a cow pox patient into the arms of the 8 year old James Phipps. The boy became immune to the deadly disease small pox. Small pox killed one in 3 patients that got the disease and disfigured the survivors.   

1797  Age 47 yrs.

   He submitted a paper to Royal society describing his experiment. The society was not willing to accept but  requested him to get   more evidence.  Jenner injected several children including his 11 year old son.

1798  Age 48 yrs.

   He published the results even using the name ‘Vaccine’ for the process. ( Vacca is the latin we

1804  Age 54 yrs.

  He gave up his medical practice and devoted full time for the eradication f the disease.

Napoleon honoured him by minting a special coin.


1823  Age 74 yrs. 

He became paralyzed and made a peaceful exit.



The government of the day banned any other treatment for smallpox other than Jenner’s. 


The World Health Organisation declared that smallpox was extinct throughout the world.


posted Dec 2, 2015, 6:20 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 16, 2019, 9:54 PM ]


  JBS Haldane had a degree in Classics and Mathematics but he became a world renowned Bio-physicist. 

  The sphere of 'population genetics' was    his own invention. As he did not believe any supernatural interference in his experiments he stressed that he was an atheist in real life too. He became a communist and wrote a regular column on scientific topics   to the party Newspaper. 

 Although he believed in Marxism he left the party in 1950 due to the brutal conduct of Jeseph Stalin in USSR.

Fig.1 JBS in Calcutta after an accident in Ceylon. ( Sri Lanka)

 He went to India studied Hinduism, became a vegetarian and finally died as an Indian Citizen. Here are some extracts from his final poem written in his death bed.

His father was the Scottish  Aristrocat Physiologist, John Scott Haldane.

1895 Age 3 Yrs.

         He learned to read.

      1900   Age 8 Yrs.  

He worked with his father in his home laboratory. He has described the amount of effort he was requested to clean the test tubes, required  for experiments.

      1907  Age 15 Yrs.

      He studied Mathematics and classics.

      1912   Age 20Yrs.

      He published his first scientific paper while being a graduate student.

      He joine the British army at the World war I.

      1915   Age 23Yrs.

       He published a paper on genetics written with his sister Naomi.

      1922  Age 30Yrs.

      He taught biochemistry at Trinity College, Cambridge.

      1924  Age 32Yrs.

      He met Charlott Burghes, the reporter and the wife of Jack Burghes.

      1926  Age 34Yrs.

      He marrie the divorcee Charlotte which led to some unpopularity at Cambridge.

      1929  Age 37Yrs.

      Combining Mathematics and Biology he introduced the subject "Population Genetics".

      An article written by him introduced the hypothesis " Primordial Soup theory" ( Now called           abiogenesis.)

      This was also develope by the Russian biochemist Alexander Oparin.  Oparin-Haldane theory.

      1933   Age 41Yrs.

      At a speech he introduced the iea of using Hydrogen  as a fuel.

      1932  Age 42Yrs.

      Visiting Professor at University of California, Berkeley.

      He constructed Gene maps for Haemophilia and colour blindness on X chromosomes.. He also had a theory on Sickle cell       disease.

      Professor of Genetics, Universirty of London.

      He helped to merge Menelion Genetics and Darwins theory of evolution. ( This was broadened by Richar Dawkind in            1976 book "selfish gene")

      He was the first to suggest Invitro fertilisation.

      1942  Age 52Yrs.

      He divorced Charlotte after a period of separation.

 He divorced Charlotte after a period of separation.

      He later married  Helen Spurway.

      1956  Age 67Yrs.  

      Emigrated to India. Worked at the Indian Statistical Institute.

      1964  Age 75Yrs.

      Even in death he helped the science and the humanity by donating hiss body for meical studies.


      Arthur C. Clarke credited him as "perhaps the most brilliant scientific populariser of his      generation"

      laureate Peter Medawar,  recognised as the "wittiest and the cleverest man I ever knew".

          Click to read the poem "Carcinoma".

Maurice Frederick Wilkins.

posted Sep 22, 2015, 12:12 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 20, 2019, 8:59 PM ]

 Prof.  Maurice  Wilkins.

                                       1916  -- 2004.

" X ray crystal photograpy by Wilkins and Rosalind helped Crick and Watson to get the DNA structure"


  Maurice  was born in Pangaroa in New Zealand. His father was a doctor of medicine immigrated from Ireland; his mother, Eveline Whittacker, was a school teacherBoth of Maurice's parents were committed vegetarians.

While he was still a baby the family moved to the Wellington city and lived at No.30 Kelburn Parade. 

He has described   his years in Wellington as the happiest of his life.

  1922  Age 6 Yrs.

  The family migrated to England. He was admitted to King Edward’s School in Birmingham.
1935   Age 19Yrs.
 At Cambridge he joined the Cambridge Scientists Anti War Group and the Communist party.

1938 Age 22 Yrs.

 He studied physics and graduated from the St John’s College , Cambridge.

1940 Age 24 Yrs.

 He obtained a PhD under the guidance of D.J.T. Randall from the Birmingham University. His thesis was mainly on a study of thermal stability of trapped electrons in phosphors, materials that  emit light when exposed to radiation such as UV or an electron beam.

 During the war he applied these techniques to improve the cathode ray tube screens for radar. Moving on to Manhattan Project he worked on separation of Uranium isotopes for use in bombs.

 After the horrifying event that resulted in the nuclear bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Wilkins developed a very negative attitude toward nuclear weapons . He decided to work on a field of science with positive applications..

1945  Age 29 Yrs.

He obtained  a lecturer post at St. Andrews' University in Scotland.

1946 Age 30Yrs.

He joined the Biophysics research at King’s College, London. For some time he studied genetic effects on ultrasonics.

1948 Age 32 Yrs.

He started research on reflecting microscopes for the study of nucleic acids in cells. His research on X-ray diffraction studies of DNA led to the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA.

1950 Age 34Yrs.

Wilkins became the Assistant Director of the Medical Research Council.

In 1951, Sir John Randall hired the scientist Rosalind Franklin, an expert in X-ray crystallography to the unit, allegedly leading her to believe that she would head the research on DNA whereas Maurice thought she was taken as his assistant. This built up tension and an unhealthy relationship between them. 

  1953 Age 37 Yrs.

  He isolated single fibers of DNA and gathered some data about Nucleic acid structure.

  Wilkins was relatively quiet, reserved, and non-confrontational; meanwhile, Franklin was brusque, outspoken . They generally avoided each other. If Wilkins and Franklin had cooperated better, they might have been the first to discover DNA's structure. Much of Watson and Crick's model was based on photographs taken by Wilkins and Franklin.

 Wilkins work was published as supporting data to the Watson-Crick model, and he went on to do much of the experimental work to prove the model was correct. However, Watson and Crick exclusively became household names.

James Watson who, with a friend and colleague of Wilkins’, Francis Crick, was working at the Cavendish Laboratory. Using a 1952 Wilkins/Franklin X-ray diffraction picture of the DNA molecule, Crick and Watson were able, to build their correct and detailed model of the DNA molecule.

Fig. 2. Maurice Wilkins with X-ray crystallographic equipment about 1954.
                   ( Pic.Chemical Heritage Foundation.)

1955 Age 39 Yrs.

  He was promoted to be the Deputy Director.

1959 Age 43 Yrs.

 He obtained the FRS. Patricia Ann Chidgey became his second wife.

1960 Age 44Yrs.

He shared the Albert Lasker Award jointly with Watson and Crick.

1962 Age 46 Yrs.

 Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the  Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for their discoveries. ( Rosalind Francis was dead by this time)

1981 Age 65 Yrs.

 Third man out. Wilkins retired but continued researching nucleic acid structure. He canvassed for high ethics in science and took an active part against armament race and causes of famine.  

2004  Age 88 Yrs.

  Maurice Wilkins died .

  He had a daughter Sarah and a son George. His recreations were gardening and collecting of sculptures.

Charles Darwin.

posted Jun 30, 2015, 2:44 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jun 29, 2022, 9:58 PM ]

Charles Darwin 

1809 -1882

Fig.1 Charles Darwin. 12th Feb 1809- 1882 Fig. 2. Courtsey: Cartoon

Place of birth  Shrewsbury, England,

If the Copernican theory of 1543 was a stone pelted at the Christendom, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, that came about 300 years later, was a grenade hurled at all human beliefs

Not only the religious few but  even the agnostics and the atheists could not support the view that men have evolved from monkey like creatures. Yet within the lifetime of the author almost the entire scientific community and the the intelligentsia have accepted it.

Biography of Charles Darwin

Charles belonged to the third generation of scientists in a wealthy, pious Christian family. His father Robert Waring Darwin, was a practising doctor and the grandfather was the famous poet, philosopher and naturalist Erasmus Darwin. He had a happy childhood with 5 siblings. Just like any other child he picked up plants, pebbles and shells. Unlike other children he pursued this habit until his death.

1817 Age 8Yrs.

He lost his mother, Susana Wedgwood, due to an illness. He was taken care of by his three elder sisters..He was at first educated by his sister, Caroline, before attending Revd Case's grammar school in Shrewsbury.

1818  Age 9Yrs.

His father sent him to a boarding school, just across the river from his house,  At this school Darwin learned the classics, ancient history, and Greek, all of which he found entirely boring. The  subjects he appreciated were drama and poetry.

1822 Age 23Yrs

His brother, Erasmus, started a chemistry lab in the garden shed in back of the house. Darwin acted as assistant to his older brother, and often worked on chemical reactions gaining some skills.

1825 Age 16Yrs.

Two brothers, Erasmus and Charles gained admission to the University of Edinburgh  for course in medicine.

1827 Age 18Yrs.

While his brother continued to be trained as a doctor Charles had to give it up as the sight of blood made him sick.

1828 Age 19Yrs.

He  joined  the Christ's College in Cambridge.

Father’s next choice was for him to be a Clergyman; a degree from an English University was an essential requirement for this . At the beginning he liked it as it would give more free time for him to engage in nature studies.

1831 Age 22Yrs.

While at Cambridge, William Fox, his cousin introduced him to a new hobby; collecting Beetles. He took it with a passion. He got an excellent training in this field including comparative anatomy, identifying,  cataloguing and how to work efficiently in the field.

Fanny Owen, his girl friend, often scolded him for wasting his time with his beetles.

When it came to crossroads he sacrificed romance to the love of Beetles.

He obtained the  BA degree  and started learning Geology.

He went on a geologic field trip to Wales.

Captain Fitzroy of the ship H M S Beagle, who was on a project to survey the coastline of  South America was looking for a Naturalist. Charles Darwin grabbed the opportunity being  recommended by his Botany Professor. Against the wishes of his father he set sailed for a very very long voyage.

For  four or five years he was collecting facts on the life of plants, animals and geological phenomenon from across the world.  In La Plata he saw a strange breed of oxen.  From another place he picked up a fossilized tooth of a horse and more fossils in Patagonia. In Galapagos Islands he noted that every Island had its own kind of birds.

On his voyage he sent packages of collected specimens and detailed notes several times to England.  By the time he returned he had already become a well known naturalist.

1835 Age 26Yrs,

On his return he decided not to seek employment but to be a full time investigator into natural phenomenon. He could well afford it due to family wealth.

Sir Charles Lyell had written a new book, Principles of Geology which was a new approach to the subject. This common interest in the matters of the Earth bound them in a strong friendship.

1836 Age 27Yrs.

His health deteriorated making him a nervous wreck. Completely lost interest in poetry and music.

1839 Age 30Yrs.

He married his cousin Emma Wedgwood.

1842 Age 33Yrs.

He moved to Kentish village leaving the London flat.

1851  Age 42Yrs  

Darwin’s 10 year daughter died and his condition worsened.

1854 Age 45Yrs

He had formulated his theory by this time. ‘Many species were not as a result of creation, but had developed from slight differences in individuals. They have been brought about originally by the individual's special surroundings. Once formed they accentuated in his descendents. Those with the favourable traits survived while the others perished.”  He agreed with the Malthus doctrine, ‘survival of the fittest’ and termed it “Natural Selection”..

When he explained this theory to the scientists, they all agreed that it was one of the most important scientific discoveries of all time. They urged him to publish the theory but he was reluctant. Probably his own theory has shocked him as he was a devout Christian himself.

1858  Age 49Yrs.

Darwin received a letter from one of his admirers Alfred Russell Wallace. On reading this he got into a quandary.The writer had developed a theory of evolution , on his own which was quite similar to his own theory. When he requested the opinion of his friends as to what he should do, they were of opinion that both views should be read at the same time to the members of the Linnean Society.. As wallace was away he could not attend to it. Darwin missed the presentation. His son, 18 month old baby, died of scarlet fever.

The revelations, surprisingly, did not make a stir among the learned members.

1859 Age 50Yrs.

He published the book, “Origin of Species by Natural Selection:. The first edition was sold out the first day. Within a few years it was translated into almost every world language. Popularity of the author and the severe attacks made by the church made more and more people buy the book.Attacks came from people of all spheres ranging from Professors and Parsons to the cockneys. Only the scientists of the calibre of T H Huxley and Charles Lyell strongly  supported the theory.

“While the storm raged, Darwin remained silent”    


1868 Age 59Yrs.  

He published a more precise version  titled, “Variations of animals and plants”.

1871 Age 62Yrs.

He published another book attempting to correct the mistaken views of the critics titled “Descent of Man”; by this time the storm had died down.

1881  Age 72Yrs.

He got a heart attack but he survived.

1882  Age 73Yrs.

Although he had willed to be buried in his village, according to the public outcry he was given a public funeral and set aside Sir Isaac Newton at West Minster.

For more Go to - Evolution.

Faraday Michael.

posted Jun 25, 2015, 3:04 AM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 13, 2019, 11:42 PM ]

Michael Faraday. 


Date of Birth; -  September 22nd.

  Michael was the third child of Margaret Hastwell and James Faraday who lived in a London suburb.  James was a blacksmith struggling to get work; adding to the miseries his health deteriorated with time.  The family though poor was tightly bonded together being the followers of the Sandemanian faith, a sect of the protestant church.

  Michael had on a rudimentary education, in a church school, where he learnt to read write and count.

1804 Age 13 Yrs.        

  In an attempt to help his parents, Michal started to run errands for a book shop owner. It has been quoted that Michael had to manage one week with a single loaf of bread.

1805 Age14                                                                                                             

  Mr George Riebau , the owner of the book shop pleased with the performance and attitude of the lad made him an apprentice to the trade of book binding.  Whenever he had some free time he got engrossed in a book. The employer instead of objecting, encouraged him in this pursuit. A few books on science determined his destiny. One described the production of an electric current, voltaic cells, and another gave simple demonstrations with  common chemicals. He spent a part of his meagre salary to buy the ingredients necessary and carried out chemical magic to the entertainment of a few onlookers.

1810 Age 19Yrs.

His father who was suffering from an illness for some time passed away.

When he heard a famous scientist Mr. John Tatum  was giving a lecture on Natural philosophy (Natural Philosophy was the term used for Physics at the time) He burrowed a shilling from his elder brother, who was also a black smith and attended it.

He wanted to leave the book binding job and get into the sphere of science. So he wrote to Sir Joseph Banks, the President of the Royal Society seeing an opportunity. He failed even to get a reply.


1812 Age 21Yrs.

A customer of the book shop, who had probably seen one of his chemical displays gave him tickets to attend four lectures to be delivered by the world famous chemist Sir Humphrey Davy.

He meticulously followed these taking down notes. He rewrote these very neatly adding illustrations. As he did not have a training in sketching, he begged lessons from an Italian artist in return for dusting his room and blackening his boots.

He collected the papers in order and neatly bound them into a book of 350 pages and sent it to the lecturer. Sir Humphrey highly impressed and flattered promptly replied. “I am far from displeased with the proof you have given me of your confidence, which displays great zeal, power of memory, and attention…. It would gratify me to be of any service to you; I wish it may be in my power.”

1913 Age22Yrs.

Humphrey Davy had an accident in his lab and that made him temporarily incapable of writing. He invited Faraday to help him in taking down notes. In the meantime Davy’s assistant was fired for assaulting the instrument maker. Davy employed Michael as a Chemical Assistant of the Royal Institution at a salary of 25 shillings a week and allotted a room for him to stay at his residence. 

1814 Age 23Yrs.

Despite the war between the two countries, Emperor Napoleon invited Sir Humphrey Davy for a lecture tour in France. The entourage, that set sailed from Plymouth, included Lady Humphrey, her maid and Michael Faraday who was included as the ‘Philosophical assistant’. The personal valet of Sir Humphrey got cold feet and refused to attend. As they had no time to find a new valet that responsibility also fell on Michael Faraday.

Lady Humphrey who disliked Faraday, due to class difference, treated him like a servant. Michael due to his respect and admiration for his master patiently obeyed her orders for the duration of two years. For Michael, Sir Humphrey was more than a demigod, a mine of inexhaustible knowledge.

When Sir Humphrey isolated Iodine from a mysterious substance given to him by Monsieur Ampere on the tour Michael was also a party to it.

This two year tour was a University seminar for Michael. He met the famous French scientists ranging from Signor Alessandro Volta in Paris to Monsieur Ampere in Milan who frankly disclosed almost everything they knew. Faraday absorbed every crucial fact that was discussed and came home determined to bind the rest of his life to science.

1816  Age 25Yrs.

On their return Davy promoted Faraday as a permanent employee of the Royal Institute on a salary of 30 shillings a week. He did not fail to send a part of it to his mother for the education of his sister.  

It was a great relief for him to have escaped from the clutches of Lady Humphrey.

1820  Age 29Yrs.

When Sir Humphrey went to France again Michael tactfully avoided it and spent time with his first love Chemistry. It was not in vain as he discovered some compounds of chlorine and carbon.

When Danish Professor Oersted discovered that a magnetic needle can be disturbed by a current carrying wire nearby, his enthusiasm in electro magnetism got ignited.  

1821  Age 30Yrs.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard, a family friend they used to meet in church. Davy making sure not to lose him got him appointed as the Acting Superintend of the Royal Institution and  grant permission for the couple to live there.

Faraday made his first important discovery which drives all electrical spinning,   rotating and turning in appliances and machinery.  He discovered that a current carrying wire can revolve around the pole of a magnet. (Yet it took more than two decades from this day to develop the electric motor) 

Then for a few years he stopped research and worked as a consultant to  commercial establishments. From this he derived a sufficient income.

1823  Age 32Yrs.

He was able to liquefy a gas for the first time in the history of science; the gas was Chlorine.

Fig.2 A demonstrating using this can summarise what he discovered.

1824  Age 33Yrs.

When he was to be elected to be a member of the Royal Society, then the president of the society, Sir Humphrey Davy, vehemently opposed it. Either he was jealous of Faraday or he did not want one of his subordinates to be on par with him. Despite of his protest Faraday got elected as a fellow of the Royal Society.

Any this event did not reduce the admiration and respect Faraday had for Sir Humphrey Davy.

1825  Age 35Yrs.

He  became the  Director of the RI Laboratories.

He isolated the organic compound Benzene.

1829  Age 38Yrs.

It was customary to conduct public lectures during the Christmas vacation by the leading scientists. In 1825 they started lectures aimed at a juvenile audience. When Michael Faraday started lectures they became very popular. He devoted much time and effort in preparing for these. “Chemical history of the candle” was one series of 6 lectures, which was available in the form of a book. It deals with the Chemistry and Physics of the Flame.

1830 Age 39Yrs.

His popularity reached a peak, commercial companies depended on him for expert advice. This quickly pushed him from the poor to the richer class. He made close upon £ 5,000./ year.

He stopped working for the Royal Society in London and would gave up professional practice completely. He wanted to devote himself entirely for scientific research.  According to some historians this move retarded the development of the electrical industry. From that day onwards his income decelerated.    

Fig.3 They still conduct lectures mainly for children in his name.

1831 Age 40 Yrs

Another outstanding discovery was what he demonstrated at a Royal Institution lecture in August. He showed that a change in one electrical circuit can produce a current in a nearby circuit if both coils are wrapped around an iron core. This is thee basis for many electrical appliances including transformers.  (One year later Joseph Henry also discovered this independently) This phenomenon is known as Electro magnetic induction and it paved the way for Electro magnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell and the Special theory of Albert Einstein.

1832 Age 41Yrs.

He received a honorary Doctorate from The University of Oxford.

1833  Age 42Yrs.

He became Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution.

Faraday made important discoveries in electrochemistry.

1834 Age 43Yrs.

He changed his life style and stopped dining out and meeting people.

1836 Age 45Yrs.

He was made a Member of the Senate of the University of London; a Crown appointment.

1838 Age 47Yrs.

Was elected a foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The only people he ever met outside the science community were from the  audience that attended his lectures. His lectures became popular day after day. It was a very queer situation,”Just as popularity ascended, his income descended”.

Sarah in spite of his frugal ways found it difficult to make the two ends meet. They had to depend on the salary of £ 100. a year.

When the plight of this great man was discreetly pointed out to The Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, he said, “ I am sure no man living has a better claim for consideration from the state.” Unfortunately he was defeated at the election that followed. Lord Melbourne that came to power refused the pension outright. Faraday’s followers who refused to accept the verdict forwarded the case to King William IV. It is said that he almost in tears, overruled the former decision and granted a £300/year pension.

1839 Age 48Yrs.

He had been working so hard that he suffered from a severe nervous breakdown.

1841  Age 50Yrs.

When he was recovering Sarah took him to Switzerland for convalescence.

1844  Age 53Yrs

Became one of eight foreign Members elected to the French Academy of Sciences

1845  Age 54Yrs.

Once again he commenced research and made a discovery that no normal scientist could have achieved.  He was showed that a strong magnetic field could rotate the plane of polarisation in light, and that the angle of rotation was proportional to the strength of the magnetic field.

He also showed that all matter are affected by magnetism.

He accepted to work in an advisory capacity, for a body that controlled Light Hoses in England. He found this work relaxing and enjoyable, and he succeeded in getting one lit by electricity for the first time.

1857 Age 66 Yrs.

He declined the offer of the Presidency of the Royal Society. When Humphrey Davy retired Faraday became the head of the Royal Institution laboratory. He declined a knighthood saying, ”I must remain plain Michael Faraday to the last”

1867  Age 76Yrs.

Michael Faraday passed away peacefully. As he had declined a buerial at West Minster he was laid down at Highgate Cemetry.

Curies- .

posted Jun 11, 2015, 5:35 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Dec 1, 2015, 10:55 AM ]

Curies- A Radiant family.


Helen Langevin Joliot Curie. 1927-

  Helen is an adviser to the French Government.




Son in Law



Frederick Joliot


12 September 1897

When mum was preparing for her Doctorate.

               19 March1900





Father:- Pierre Curie

Mother:- Marie Curie.

Father-Henri Joliot  A merchant.

Mother- Emile Roderer.


Sister:-  Eve  7 yrs. Younger who became a distinguished writer. Her husband won a Noble Prize on behalf of UNICEF.



Her abilities were far superior to that of other students of her age group.

As a boarding student at the Lycée Lakanal he was an outstanding sportsman.


Taught in a private class with nine other children at Sorbonne by her mother, Paul Langevin, and Jean Perrin.

1907 Age. 10yrs.

Marie whenever she had the time gave math puzzles to Irene which she often solved with much ease. She also had the good fortune of listening to adult discussions on contemporary science.

She blossomed into a child prodigy.

1912 Age 15Yrs.

She was sent to a High school in Paris.

1925 Age 28Yrs.

She obtained her Doctorate for studies of the alpha rays of polonium (the first of the two elements her mother had discovered 27 years earlier).

Later he joined the Lavoisier municipal school in order to prepare for the entrance competition at the École de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle,

Obtained a first class degree in Engineering from Ecole de Physique.

Irene trained him in special techniques required for radioactive research.


Biography 1

She was one of the most un assuming girls in Paris that did not care about fashions. She played tennis and did skiing.

1914 Age 17yrs.

When the war commenced her mother Marie sent her and the sister to Brittany.

1934 Age 37Yrs

Her mother died due to radiation poisoning

1942  Age 45Yrs.

Irène supported the movement of equal rights for women sponsored by the Communist party. 

1944 Age 47Yrs.

Irene took their children to Switzerland for safety...

1942  Age 45Yrs.

Fred joined the French Communist party

1944 Age 47Yrs.

Fred risked his life manufacturing explosives and radio equipment for the Resistance. Joliot had expressed his views as, “Progressive scientists shall not give a jot of their science to make war………., sustained by our conviction that in so doing we serve France and all of humanity.” 


On the advancement of Germans he sent Research documents to England.

Biography 2

1926 Age 29Yrs.

Frederic Joliot married Irene Curie out of church in a civil ceremony.

Irene had to manage all expenses with her salary as Fred was preparing for his doctorate.  Once he even thought of quitting research altogether and get into a lucrative job. Irene would not even hear of it.

Eleven months later, their daughter Helene was born; (she would also become a noted physicist).

1927 Age 30Yrs.

Things became worse as Helene was born they could just make ends meet as Irene did not spend for fashions and hi-fi social activities unlike her sister Eve.

1932 Age 35Yrs.

Their second child Pierre was born. (He ended up as a biologist).

The parents worked hard on their research while the children were at school and they spent their vacations in their holiday home L’Arcoust. This was essential as Irene; in-spite of energetic output was suffering from tuberculosis, probably due to the weakening of her resistance due to various exposures.

This year they just missed two crucial catches. The sub atomic particle neutron came to them but missed it. It went over to James Chadwick .The second was the positron which was caught by C. D. Anderson.

1937 Age 40Yrs..

Just as she attacked the minute nuclei of atoms, she also resisted the major movement of Fascism in Europe. During World War II, Irene and Fred stopped working on nuclear physics as the enemies would have misused their discoveries and started working only on medical applications of radio isotopes.



They are the pioneers in creating artificial radioactivity.

1934 Age 37Yrs

Irene Joliot Curie obtained Phosphorous from Aluminum   and changed Magnesium to Silicon.

Irene achieved this amazing feat, ‘transmutation’ of elements,, at the Curie Radium Institute in Paris working with her husband Frederick Joliot. All research papers they signed as Joliot-Curie.

The Phosphorous produced in this nuclear reaction, was not the same as the natural element. This Phosphorous, formed from Aluminum were, “minute generators of radiation endowed with an enormous concentration of energy”; so this was the first instance a ‘radioactive isotope’ had been made by man. Radioactive isotopes are now in wide use in medicine and industry just as her mother who always claimed as, “Pierre and I …….”  Irene also signed all her research papers as Joliot-Curie...


She helped her mother to develop of X’ ray therapy while getting a fair dose of radiation.

 1939, Age 39Yrs

Frédéric demonstrated, with Antoine Lacassagne, the use of radioactive iodine as a tracer in the thyroid gland.

1943  Age 43Yrs.

He became a member of the Académie de Médecine.

He discovered and worked on the Atomic chain reactions.

He supervised the building of the first cyclotron in Western Europe.


1936  Age 39Yrs.

Curie was appointed Undersecretary of State for Scientific Research. From 1946 to 1951, Curie served as a member of the French Atomic Energy Commission with her husband and assisted in establishing France's first atomic pile. 

1937 Age 40Yrs.

Irene became the Professor in the Faculty of Science in Paris.

Professor Langevin, his physics Professor introduced him to ‘Curie Radium Institute’  and he became an assistant to Marie Curie.

1937 Age 37Yrs.

Professor at “Colllege de France”.

In addition to earlier post he accepted the chair at Sorbonne for Nuclear Physics which was held earlier by his wife.


1914 Age 17yrs.

She had to leave the University to help her mother with the fleet of X’ray units to treat the wounded soldiers. She received a Military Medal for these services.

1918  Age 21Yrs.

Irene joined the Curie Radium Institute as her mother’s assistant. She conducted research on radiation. The fame and the achievement of her parents neither discouraged nor intimidated her....Her sincere love of science, inspired in her only one ambition: to work forever in that laboratory which she had seen grow up.”--Eve Curie on her sister Irène.

1939 Age 42Yrs

Irène devoted her scientific experience and her abilities as an administrator to the acquisition of raw materials, the prospecting for uranium and the construction of detection installations.

1946 Age 49Yrs.

After the war,  Irene became the Director of the Institute of Radium and the Commissioner of Atomic energy. She was made a member of the Legion of Honour but was denied a seat in the French Academy of Sciences due to her gender.

1950 Age 53Yrs.

Irène was deprived of her position as commissioner in the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

1951 Age 54Yrs.

She was excused of her services at the Atomic Energy Commission  because of her association with the French Communist party,

1946 Age 49Yrs.

Fred was appointed director of the National Center for Scientific Research and was elected to the French Academy of Sciences. Soon he became the head of the French Atomic Energy Commission.

1945 Age 25Yrs.

General de Gaulle authorized Frédéric and the minister of armaments to create the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique to ensure for France the applications of the discoveries made

1948 Age 48Yrs.

 ZOE (zéro, oxyde d’uranium, eau lourde), the first French nuclear reactor, which, though only moderately powerful, marked the end of the Anglo-Saxon monopoly.

1950 Age 50Yrs.

Prime Minister Georges Bidault removed him without explanation from his position as high commissioner,

1956  Age 59Yrs.

Fred accepted Irene’s chair at Sorbonne.

He devoted the last years of his life to the creation of a centre for nuclear physics at Orsay,


1935  Age Irene=  38, Fred= 35

They received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the synthesis of new radioactive elements.


1956  Age 59Yrs.

Irene’s health deteriorated with time. Even several surgeries performed could not save her. At the age of 59 she died of leukemia at the Curie Hospital.

iven a state funerals

1965 Age 65Yrs.

Frederick Joliot succumbed to a liver disease probably due to radiation. Both Joliot-Curies were given state funerals

Given a state funeral.


1927 Age. Irene= 30,  Fred= 27.

Hélène, was born who would also become a noted physicist,. She did research on Radioactivity. and became the Professor of Nuclear Physics at the University of Paris.  

She married Paul Langevin’s grandson,  Michael a nuclear physicist engaged in science research..

1932 Age. Irene= 35, Fred =32.

Their second child Pierre was born. (He ended up as a biologist).


Marie Curie with Irene and Eve.


Pierre Curie

Marie Sklodowska.


15-5-1859 Paris, France.

7-11-1867 Warsaw, Poland.






5 siblings. Sister- Bronya.


Eugène Curie  a physician, & Sophie-Claire Curie 

Bronislawa and Vladislav Sklodowski. 

Physics teacher in Poland.


He had a happy childhood.

First educated by father.

Showed early signs of high intelligence.

Lived pressurised by the Czarist Russian rule in Poland.

Her elder sister died when she was 8.

Mother died when she was 10.


1975  Age 16

Graduated in Mathematics.

1878 Age 19

Masters in Physics

1895 Age 36Yrs.

Obtained his Doctor of Science degree.


1883  Age 16Yrs.

Graduated from Gymnasium winning a gold medal.

Floating University in Poland. ( Illegal as teaching in Polish was banned)

1891  Age 24Yrs.

Studied at the secret Floating University.

She joined Sorbonne.

Managed her expenses with an allowance from Bronya. Burning midnight oil, in freezing cold due to poor heating, often forgetting her food, she crammed up the lecture notes.

1893 Age 26Yrs.

Graduated at the top of her batch in physics getting a scholarship.

1894. Age 26Yrs.

earned a second degree in



 Marie was introduced to Pierre



In youth his only interest was Magnetissm on which he performed research with his brother.


A confirmed atheist and a socialist.





1895 Age 36Yrs.

Maria first refused him as she wanted to be a teacher in Poland, but agreed to marry him later.

1902 Age 43Yrs.

He gave up his own research and joined his wife to discover the hihgly reactive element which could be present in minute quanities.

1937  Age 10Yrs.

Her mother died of Tuberculosis.

1885 Age 18Yrs.

The two sisters devised a plan for their education Marie would work as a governess and send money for her elder sister to study medicine in France.  Once Bronya had completed the course she would spend for her younger sister.


She fell in love with her employer’s son but his parents objected as she was poor. The youth ended up as a professor in mathematics.



Bronya invited her to Paris.

She rented a garret closr to the university,


1895 Pierre=36Yrs. Marie =26Yrs

They were married in Seine neither wanted a religious service. Marie wore her dark blue outfit instead of a bridal grown, They enjoyed the ‘Honeymoon’ on  push cycles.

They shared two pastimes: long bicycle trips, and journeys abroad, which brought them even closer. In Pierre, Marie had found a new love, a partner, and a scientific collaborator on whom she could depend.


1882 Age 23 Yrs.

Became the  Professor of Physics.

He was in charge of all practical work in the Physics and Industrial Chemistry Schools.

1900  Age 41Yrs.

He was promoted to Professor in the Faculty of Sciences in Sorbonne.

Started tutoring with her father.

Worked as a governess.





Discovered Pietzoelectricity. With his brother.

Invented a very sensitive instrument, Curie Scale.


demonstrated that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. (crystal oscillators. Use this principle.)

Discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetism which is now known as Curie's law

1904  Age 45Yrs.

In London Pierre had suggested how Radium could be used to cure cancer. 

1914  Age 47Yrs.

During the war she laboriously worked to equip mobile X- ray units. She trained young women to use X rays to detect metal splinters in the flesh. Irene 19 was also among them. All of them got paid by massive doses of radiation


They discovered Polonium and Radium.

Coined the term “Radiation



They shared the Nobel Prize with Henry Becquerel for physics.


Marie curie got the second Nobel prize for chemistry

1918  Age 51Yrs.

After the war Curie Radioactive Institute was opened without much help from the government



Irene and


1906  Age 45Yrs.

Died in a street accident in Paris 



Died of Radium poisoning.


After Death


A unit to measure Radioactivity was named as ‘Curie’ which is equivalent to 3.7 × 1010 nuclear decays per second.


The remains of Pierre and Marie were enshrined at the Panthéon in Paris.

1-10 of 33