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Scientists - modern.

posted Jan 15, 2018, 1:26 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jul 29, 2019, 9:32 PM ]
Text Colour code.
Green:- Contributions to society.
Red:- Appreciations by the society and achievements.
Yellow :- Carefully note.
Blue:- Click for more.
Sir Timothy Berners-Lee
1955-


He found the "World wide web”

A British computer scientist, knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

He is especially famous for his proposal to share information by using the technology of hypertext, the cornerstone of the world wide web.

 HTTP means HyperText Transfer Protocol. 

Berners-Lee also made the world’s first website in 1991.

Fig. Courtsey   The Drum.


Sir Edwin Hubble.

1889 – 1953 (US)


He showed that:-

  • the Universe is not confined only to the milky way .
  • the distant galaxies are moving away from each other at very high velocities.

He was not awarded the Nobel prize as, at the time,  astronomy was not included in the physics category.

‘The Hubble Telescope’ will be surveying the universe for many years to come.



Prof.Stephen Hawking.

1942-2018. UK.

As a teenager he was nicknamed as 'Einstein',

He ascended to the chair that Sir Isaac Newton held.

Lucasian Professor of Mathematics .

University of Cambridge.





Supported mathematical evidence to show that universe began as a 'singularity'.

Showed the existence of Hawking’s radiation from Black holes.

Generally considered as the most brilliant scientist since Einstein.


A question answered:-  How is gold produced?

 The collision of neutron stars is one way of producing gold. It can also be formed from fast neutron capture in supernovas. Gold is rare everywhere, not just on Earth. The reason it's rare is that by nuclear-binding energy peaks at iron, making it hard to produce heavier elements in general. Also strong electromagnetic repulsion must be overcome by the nuclear force in order to form stable heavy nuclei like gold.


 Albert Einstein  Einstein Albert.       Click for information.

(1879-1955)

May have revolutionized scientific thought


Marie Curie Curie Marie . Click for information.

(1867-1934)

Working closely with her husband she discovered the elements Polonium and Radium.


Max Planck .--German.
B 23 April 1858-1947,
He completely revolutionized physics. Introduced the quantum theory.
He explained the colours of heated matter by assuming that the energy is radiated in packets (quanta) instead of continuous waves.
He introduced the Planks constant in 1900.
In 1905 Einstein used it to explain photo electric effect.
In 1913 Niels Bohr improved the model of the atom using his theories.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918





Niels Bohr -- Danish
(1885-1962),
He showed that the electrons orbited at definite levels and they emitted energy as they descend.
He predicted the existence of a new  element, which was named hafnium.
He was involved with the establishment of CERN 
In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
The element Bhorium was named to honour him.
     He had problems with the Nazis and escaped to Britain.
      After the war, Bohr called for international cooperation on nuclear energy. 
      
Jonas Salk
(1914-1995)
He invented a vaccine for polio.






  1. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) studied drooling dogs. While that may seem like an odd thing to research, Pavlov made some fascinating and important observations by studying when, how, and why dogs drooled when introduced to varied, controlled stimuli. During this research, Pavlov discovered "conditioned reflexes."

  2. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) first became interested in physics when he was 14 years old. His brother had just died unexpectedly, and while looking for an escape from reality,

  3. Robert Goddard (1882-1945), considered by many to be the father of modern rocketry, was the very first to successfully launch a liquid-fueled rocket.

  4. Francis Crick (1916-2004) and James Watson (b. 1928) together discovered the double helix structure of DNA, the "blueprint of life." Surprisingly,

  5. Richard P Feynman 1918 – 1988  US.    

    You can encode the whole of Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin”. So said, ‘One of the funniest fellows who ever juggled a bunch of atoms’. 

  6. Stephen Hawking 1942-2018. UK.

As a teenager he was nicknamed as 'Einstein', and he really lived up to it. He ascended to the chair that Sir Isaac Newton held as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Supported mathematical evidence to show that universe began as a 'singularity'. Showed the existence of Hawking’s radiation from Black holes. Generally considered as the most brilliant scientist since Einstein.

One of the questions answered to Pallab Guosh of BBC.

Is the collision of neutron stars one of the very few ways, or possibly the only way, that gold is produced in Universe. Could this explain why it's so rare on Earth?

Yes, the collision of neutron stars is one way of producing gold. It can also be formed from fast neutron capture in supernovas. Gold is rare everywhere, not just on Earth. The reason it's rare is that by nuclear-binding energy peaks at iron, making it hard to produce heavier elements in general. Also strong electromagnetic repulsion must be overcome by the nuclear force in order to form stable heavy nuclei like gold. 

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