Fig.1. Diagram of a torch. A circuit means a round trip. The runner must come back to the starting point after the journey.. Similarly for an electrical current to exist there must be a complete circuit for the electrons to flow . Fig.2 A circuit using a cell to light a bulb. B A circuit using the main domestic supply.The arrows indicate the direction of current.
( Electrons really flow in the opposite direction)
 Question
If the current starting from a battery comes back, how does a battery run down?
High light to read the answer.  Answer.
The current is produced as a result of a chemical reaction. The cell will stop once it has used up the required chemical. 
AC and DCThere are two forms of electric current. 'Alternating current' and 'Direct current'. What we get from chemical cells is a direct current where the flow is only in one direction. Domestic electrical supply does not have positive and negative terminals. As that current changes the direction 50 times in one second. The terminals in house wiring are called Phase or Live and Neutral. And usually marked L and N. Sometimes there is another wire, green and yellow attached to appliances, which carry any leaked out current to earth. ( Earth may be the metal body of the apparatus, such as in a a car.)
These are the common symbols used in drawing circuits.
Fig.3 Symbols used in electrical circuits.In our DC circuit diagrams, we use red for the positive connection and blue for negative connection.
Home Experiment 1
Aim: To examine what happens to a thin wire when an electric current passes.Method:Connect two or three cells in a circuit leaving a gap as shown. Then take a thin strand of steel wool or any other metal (not copper) and connect it across the gap.
ResultsWhat happened?..................................................
Why did that happen?........................................................
Electricity Generates Heat.Whenever an electric current flows through a solid a certain amount of energy gets transferred to thermal energy. When matter gets very hot they give out electromagnetic waves such as infra red, and the other colours of the light spectrum depending on the temperature and the nature of the heated molecules.Electric lamps or bulbs are made using this principle. Let us examine a household bulb and a torch bulb now.
Fig.5 The structure of filament lamps.Find out. CourtseyHow stuff works. Quesion
Could a torch bulb light if you change the positive and negative of a battery?

Joseph Swan had already tried out electric lights. [1828 – 1914, UK.] Thomas Alva Edison [U.S.],[1847 – 1931] wanted to do better. He tried out over 2000 materials to be used as a filament. Ultimately in 1879 a length of sewing thread , partly burnt, produced a steady glow for over forty hours. The biggest problem he encountered was the burning out of the filament when it gets heated. He overcame this by removing the air inside the bulb. An interesting task.
Draw a circuit diagram to light two bulbs together and separately using only the following.
 2 Torch bulbs attached to holders.
 3 switches. 1 Cell, and connecting wires.

Series and Parallel connections. Series connection.  Parallel connection.  When objects such as bulbs, resistors, meters or cells are connected in such a way so that the current has to go through every item we say that they are in series.  When an object is connected in such a way so that the current can bypass another the two are parallel. 
The two methods are compared in this experiment.
Home Experiment 2
Find out what happens to bulbs
under given conditions.
Condition

Blue bulb

Red bulb

1.S1 and s2 closed.

Lights

Lights

2.s1 and s2 open.

off

off

3 s1 open s2 closed.

off

off

4.s1 closed s2 closed V removed.

Lights

Lights.

High light to verify the answers.
Condition  Red bulb.  Blue bulb.  comparing Ammeters.  1.s1,s2 ands3 closed.  lights  lights  A2= A1+A3.  2. s1,s2 closed s3 open.  lights  off  A2=A1 A3=0.  3. s1,s3 closed s2 open.  off  lights  A2=A3. A1=0.  4.S1open s2,s3 closed.  off  off  All= 0. 
Home Experiment.
Electrical Measurements.1.Ammeter.
In order to measure the current, the total current has to pass through this instrument. Therefore this has to be connected in series. The unit is the Ampere. (A) If you connect it parallel, only a part of the current, that will pass through it can be measured.
2. Voltmeter. Voltmeter is the instrument which can measure the pressure difference between any two points in a circuit. The entire current need not pass through that. The pressure difference is usually called the Potential Difference. [PD]. The unit for this measurement is the ‘Volt (V)’.Connecting Ammeters and Voltmeters.

 Ammeter is in series. It measures the current.  Voltmeters are connected parallel.V1 measures the Maximum pressure difference the two cells can give. [Electromotive force 
3. Resistance meter. This is the opposition to the flow of current in a conductor. Multi meters usually permit you to measure this directly. If not it has to be calculated from the measurements of current and potential difference across the conductor. The conductors that have a high resistance are called Resistors. If a material does not pass any current , or pass only an insignificant amount that substance can be called an insulator. Some of the best insulators are Air or {all gases) , Pure water, Rubber, Plastics and Glass.
When a certain potential difference is applied to the two ends of a conductor, a current flows. The current will depend on the conducting ability of the conductor. If it does not allow much current to flow it should be called a resistor. The ability to resist can also be measured. The unit for this measurement is the 'Ohm' and usually denoted by the Greek letter Omega 4.Galvanometer. This can measure extremely weak currents and also indicate the direction.
Resistors in Parallel and in Series. Fig.A. Series connection. Fig. B. Parallel connection. In Fig A, the current has to overcome the resistance of the blue bulb to reach the red one.This reduces the electrical pressure. (Voltage) . In Fig.B. Both bulbs get the maximum pressure. So they will be brighter. Voltmeters are connected parallel while the ammeters have to be in such a way to get the entire flow; that’s in series.
Formulas to find the sum of resistors.if there sre 3 resistors. When in series R = r1 + r2 + r3. When parallel 1/R = 1/r1 + 1/r2 + 1/r3.
Electrical Resistance  Ohm's Law.Electrical resistance is the opposing pressure offered by a substance against the flow of an electric current. George Ohm conducted experiments to determine this in 1825. What he determined and subsequently established as the Ohm’s law can be determined by a simple laboratory experiment.Aim: To investigate the relationship between the current and potential differenceList of apparatus and material:Ammeter, Voltmeter, Variable resistor, Cell / battery, Connecting wires.
Method:
Fig. A Resistor is in series with a variable resistor.Assemble the circuit shown. (If you cannot get a resistor you may use a suitable bulb) Note down the readings in the two meters and tabulate as follows and complete the table shown below.Then change the resistance of the variable resistor and take the readings. Do this several time after allowing the resistor to cool in case it gets heated.Complete a chart for your results and plot a graph similar to the ideal example given Your results may not be perfect, due to unavoidable experimental errors.An Ideal Example. An Ideal Example.Volts (V)  0.5  1.00  1.40  1.60  1.80  2.0  Amps (i)  0.05  0.10  0.14  0.16  0.18  0.20  V/IResistance       
Here is the graph according to the above results.
Your graph from an actual experiment may not be perfect like this due to un avoidable experimental errors.Interpretation
Conclusion.
V/i is a constant. This constant value is the resistance of the tested conductor or the resistor. Ohm's Law and the Ohm  Unit of measuring resistance. Ohm's Law.  Ohm. Ω.  The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied at the two ends, ( provided the conditions such as temperature do not change. Some objects defy Ohm's Law.)  Ohm is the unit of resistance. If a current of 1 amp. Is produced when a potential difference of 1 volt is applied across the two ends, the resistance is 1 Ohm. (Ω symbol) 
Example 1
Calculate the current shown in the ammeter. Working. As the bulbs are in series the resistance is equal to the sum of the resistors. That is R = r1 + r2. R = 3 + 2 …….= 5Ω.
Using V = ir. We get 12 = ix 5 Therefore i = 12/5……..= 2.4A.
Example 2. Find the reading on the voltmeter. Working: Using the formula for parallel resistors.
1/R = 1/r1 + 1/r21/R = ⅓ + ½ 1/r = (2 +3) /6 Therefore R = 6/5 = 1.2Ω.
 Finding the voltage. V=ixR V= 2x 1.2 V= 2.4 
Highlight to get the answers. Q.1.0 Are these electrical conductors , resistors or insulator  conductors  Resistors  Insulators  I. Copper 2. Mica 3. Salt solution 4. Butter ,5. Gold , 6. Nichrome alloy7. Carbon (Graphite),
8. Fuse wire9. Nitrogen,
10. Leather  Copper Salt solution Gold
 Nichrome
Fuse wire  MicaNitrogen
Leather
Butte 
10 Marks. Q.2.0 Identify the numbered parts and give the direction of current at the point marked. (To left or right) 2x5=10 Marks.
Q.3.0 Complete this tableSource of Electricity  Potential difference  AC / DC 
 1.5 V  DC 
 1.5 V  DC 
 12 V  DC  Car dynamo  !2 V  DC 
Main domestic current.  230 V  AC. 
2x10 20 Marks. Q.4.0 Q.4
No  Circuit  State of fuse.  Bulbs ON /Off ?  .1. 
 OK  Blue On.  Red Off.  2. 
 OK  On  On  3. 
 OK .  Off.  On  4. 
 Melts.  Off.  Off.  5. 

OK .  Off.  Off. 
2 x 15=30.Find the following:
Resistance. R1.
 RV/I R=12/3 = 4 Ω  Resistance R 2.
 R=V/I R= 12/2 = 6 Ω  Combine resistance of R1 හ& R2
 1/R = 1/r1 + 1/r2 1/R = ¼ + ⅙ 1/R = 3+2 12 R= 12/5 = 2.4 Ω  Reading on A..
 I=V/R I= 12/2.4 I= 5 A
 5. If S’ s open the current on A.  I=V/R I= 12/3 I=4. A 
30 marks 