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Physical Tables

posted Jan 29, 2015, 3:04 AM by Ranmini Perera   [ updated Sep 12, 2017, 9:46 PM by Upali Salpadoru ]

We wish to include tables useful for various purposes on this page

1 Richter scale for Earthquakes.

2 Mohr scale for hardness.     

3.Physical properties of some solids.

4.Physical properties of some liquids.

5.Beaufort scale for wind.

 

1.   EARTH QUAKES

     Earth Quakes

Richter Scale

Category

Effects

Frequency

 

1.0 to  2.0    

Micro

Generally detected only by seismographs.

1,300,000

2.0  to 4.0   

Minor

Felt by some people. Rattling of doors.

130,000

4.0 to 5.0

Light

Some objects fall from shelves.

13000

5.0 to 6.0

Moderate

Damage to some buildings

1319

6.0 to 7/0

Strong

Severe shaking felt up to hundreds of kilometres. Much damage to buildings.. Some casualties.

134

7.0 to 8.0

Major

Severe damage to buildings. Many casualties in populated areas  extending to 200km.

15

8.0 to 9.0

Great

Even earth quake resistant buildings get damaged.  Cracks may appear on land.

1

9.0 to 10.0

Greater

Total destruction. Landscape changes.

Once in 20 to 50 yrs.

                                                                                                          based on USGS  data.

 2. HARDNESS SCALE MOHR'S

No

Substance

                       Scratch test.

1

Talc

Finger nail can scratch.

 

Quartz can scratch.

 

 

 

 

 

Steel can scratch.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diamond can scratch.

2

Gypsum

2.5

Finger nail

 

3

Calcite

 

4

Fluorite

 

5

Apatite

 

6

Feldspar

 

7

quartz (amethyst,  agate)

7.5

Steel

 

8

beryl (emerald, aquamarine)

 A gem from Sri Lanka.

9

corundum

 

ruby, sapphire

10

Diamond

 

 

 > 10

Wurtzite boron nitride,  lonsdalite.

 

Diamond cannot scratch.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMON SOLIDS

 

Material

Specific Gravity

Melting Point

°C

Thermal expansion

10-6  /  °C

Thermal conductivity

Electrical conductivity

Refractive index

Mass in relation to water as 1.0

In relation to the ability of copper taken as 100.

Aluminum 

2.7

660

23

56

62

 

Brass

8.4- 8.7

930

19

28

25

 

Brick

1.8 to 2.4

 

 

                  Insulator

 

Carbon 

2.25

4490

 

 

 

 

Ceramic

2 to3

3870

 

 

 

 

Concrete

2.3  to 2.4

 

 

 

 

 

Copper 

8.9

1085

17

100

100

 

Cork

0.1 to0.2

-

 

Insulator

 

Glass

2.4 to 2.8

-

Pyrex 3.3

1.5 to 1.6

Gold 

19.3

1064

14

76

71

 

 Granite

2.6

 

 

 

 

 

Iron 

7.86

1538

118

17

17

 

Lead 

11.3

327

29

9

8

 

Magnesium 

1.74

650

 

 

 

 

Nickel 

8.89

1455

13

20

25

 

Nylon; Polyamide

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

Platinum 

21.4

1768

 

18

16

 

Rubber

0.9 to 1.3

 

 

insulator

 

Silicon 

2.3

1382

 

 

 

 

Silver 

10.5

962

 

108

105

 

Solder; Tin-Lead

8 t0 11

215

 

 

 

 

Steel

7.9

1425

17.3

 

 

 

 Limestone

2 to 2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 Marble

2.5 to 2.9

-

 

 

 

 

Quartz

2.6

-

 

 

 

1.5

Tin 

7.3

232

 

17

15

 

Titanium 

4.54

1668

 

 

 

 

Tungsten 

19

3422

4.5

 

 

 

Wood

0.5 to 1

 

 

 

 

 

Zinc 

7.1

420

 

29

30

 

               

 

 4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMON LIQUIDS

 

Material

Specific Gravity

Melting point  /°C

Boiling point /°C

Volume expansion

10-6  /  °C

Refractive  index

Acetone 

0.8

-95

56

 

1.4

Alcohol; Ethanol  

0.8

-114

78

750

1.4

Alcohol; Methanol 

0.8

-98

65

 

1.4

Mercury 

13.6

-39

357

 

 

Oil; Mineral

0.9

 

 

 

 

Oil; vegetable

0.9

-6

 

 

1.5

Water; Distilled (at4 ºC)

1.0

0

100

207

1.3

Water; Sea 

1.02

 

 

 

1.4


5. BEAUFORT  WIND  ASSESSMENT  SCALE

Introduced to Royal Navy  by Sir Francis Beaufort (UK) in 1805.

Scale

Description

Maximum wave height in meters and Seascape.

Max. wind speed(km/h) and Landscape.

0

Calm

0    Smooth

< 1  Smoke rises vertically.

1

Light air

0.2 Ripples.

5.5 Smoke drifts.

2

Light breeze

0.5 Crests appear.

11  Leaves rustle.

3

Gentle breeze

1   Crests break.

19  Feels on face.

4

Moderate breeze

2   Waves and white caps

28  Branches move. Umbrellas turn.

5

Fresh breeze

3  Waves and spray.

38  Trees sway. Difficult to walk.

6

Strong breeze

4  Long waves with foam.

49  Wires whistle.

7

Near gale

5.1 Foam gets blown.

60  Larger trees sway and twigs break.

8

Gale

7.5 Lot of airborne spray

74  Cars veer on road

9

High gale

10 Poor visibility.

88   Small trees .topple

10

Storm

12.5 Very poor visibility.

100  Damage to structures.

11

High storm

16  Turbulent foamy sea

117  Roofs get blown off.

12

Hurricane.

≥ 16  White sea with driving spray.

≥ 118   Severe destruction.

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