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### Forces - introduction.

posted Dec 5, 2015, 11:31 AM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Aug 10, 2019, 11:10 PM ] Forces introduction.

The car is resisting, yet it may move.

A force has a direction.

Fig.1.  Frank is pushing a car.

Fig.2. Kate and Nelly are pulling each other. Who will win?

One who gives the greater force will win.

What exactly is a force?

It is usually defined as ;

“ The effect that can cause a change in the motion of a mass .”

Hey! " Then what is mass?"

Mass is the quantity of matter in a body.

Exception:- In the case of Kate and Nelly if the two forces are balanced there may not be a visible movement, but the rope will experience a Tension Force.

Push and Pull are two forces exerted by muscles. Are there any other forces?

Reaction forces.

"Every action has a reaction". The pup exerts a force on the table. Table exerts a force up. The Tree pulls the man.      Man pulls the tree. Copter pulls the man up.  Man pulls the copter down.
Fig.3 Reaction forces.

The force by the pup is the pulling force of the earth. We call this weight. So weight is a force.

But there is no visible movement.  It is because the weight is balanced by a force that the table gives.

Table gives a reaction ; we call this a support force.

Support force is a reaction force. Fig.4 What force drives a car?

The pushing force that results due to an engine is termed Thrust.

Several forces are marked by coloured arrows in this figure.

Practice problem.

 Direction Colour Name of force. Down Black. Weight. 2.   Right Red Thrust 3.   Up. Green Support (Reaction) 4.   Left BlueA Air resistance.

Fourth mentioned Air resistance is one type of a force coming under the broad category of forces

known as Friction. Road friction actually helps to give the thrust.  Fig.5. Types of Friction.

What is Friction?

Friction is a force that resist movement. It acts in the opposite direction to movement.

Now check whether you can name seven forces? Is that all?

No! There are a few more. All the forces we have named so far, except weight, are contact forces. That means there is some connection between the object giving the force and the one receiving the force.

An object on an inclined plane / Ram.

What do you know about 3 and 4? They are equal.

2 and 5? 2 is greater than 5,

Non Contact forces.- Action at a distance Weight is a non-contact force.

1 Gravitational force.

Earth pulls all matter towards it.This force extends even beyond the moon.

If not for this force the moon will go away far into the unknown space.

Fig. Earth attracts the Moon and the moon attracts the earth.

As there is no material connection between the two bodies we call this a “non contact- force”.

This is Force of gravity.

Weight is what results from the force of gravity.

Any mass can attract any other mass, but this is a very weak force.

This is directly proportional to the product of their masses while inversely proportional to the square of the distance. F ∝ M x m / r 2

2. Magnetic.

II I

In magnets unlike poles attract while like poles repel.

In this experiment the magnets are kept on torch batteries to reduce friction.

3.  Electrical Attractions and Repulsions.

Get a plastic comb. Brush your hair several times. Then hold it above pieces of light paper. Note what happens?

Wait for some time and see what happens.

Why O Why?

When you rub dry hair with a comb some electrons move into the comb.  This will give a negative charge.

A charged body can exert an attractive force on neutral bodies. If the pieces of paper gets some of the extra electrons from the comb they will repel.

3.  Gravitational Repulsion.    There is no gravitational repulsion

Yet in the Universe the Galaxies are accelerating away from each other.

This has not been explained properly.

Forces and Sir Isaac Newton.

Although Galileo made some demonstrations with regard to forces, it was Newton who produced a mathematical explanation to understand what a force is.

He showed that a Force can be measured by multiplying mass by the acceleration it will produce.

 Force = Mass X Acceleration. newton = kilogram x acceleration due to gravity N = m x g
This is why the unit for measuring a force has been named as a newton.

Some interesting Activities.

1. Get familiar with these forces too.
Spring force,Elastic force ,  Capillary force. Upthrust.

2.  In society, forces are known by various names. There are a multitude of such names; for example a kick is a force executed by a leg. Drop is making use of the force of gravity.

In fact we can name a force starting with almost every letter in the alphabet.
A few examples are here.  Try to complete this.

 A=    Angling is a favorite of  the Elderly.. B=    Sangakkara batted the whole session.C=   Catch the ball with both hands. (You have to give a force to stop the ball)D-    Drill a hole before you insert a screw.E=    "Erect a statue in his memory.". F=    "Flip it open".G=    ..........I=     ..................J=   Jump up or down.K=    ................L=M=   Playing chess we move the pieces.. Y=    ................ N=0=P=You have to pierce the ear to wear ear studs.Q=   ........................R=    Roam the jungle and find the plant.S=    .....................T=    torque.U=    ...........V=WX=.............................Z=     Zip the bag or else the keys may fall.

Free body Force Diagrams.

A force can be represented by straight lines drawn to scale.

The girls pulling force is balanced by the elastic forces of the rubber bands. As the net force is zero there is no movement, but the rubbers will be stretched due to tension.
The moment she takes the hands off the missile will get forced out by the rubber bands.
The force will be gives only up to the extension of the rubber bands, but the missile will go a long way without a pushing force.
This shows that an object can move without a net force.

According to the free body force diagram, what should happen to the toy plane?
It must go up as well as move to right.
Summary. Multiple Choice  questions.

From Q  1 to  4.
Answers:   A.- Weight,  B.- Push   C.- Friction D.- Support. 1.             2.           3.             4.

From Q  5 to  13.
Answers.   A.- up thrust,  B,- Air resistance  C.- Water resistance.
D.- Thrust.  E- weight.    F- Lift.

5-1.        6-2.          7-3.

8- 4         9.-5.

13.-4

14.  Convert 100 km/h to meters per second.
A.-  (100 x 1000) / 60 x 60.       B.-  100 x 100 x 60 x 60.
C.-  (100 /1000) / 60 x 60         D.- (1000 /100) / 60 x 60.
15.    Which statement is in correct?
A.- A force can accelerate a body.    B.-  A force can decelerate a body.
C.- A force is not required for motion.
D.- No force can effect without contact.
2 x 15 = 30 marks

Answers.- 1. C,  2. B,  3. D.  4. 1.
5.  D,  6. B,  7. C,  8. A,
9.   E,  10. E, 11, D,  12. E,
13.  B,  14.  A.  15. D.
Other Questions.
Q 1.0 Name the 5 forces marked in the diagram.

1.- Weight.  2.- Sliding component due to weight.
3.- Normal component due to weight.  4.- Normal.
5. Friction.

2 x5 = 10 marks.
Q.2.0
Answer the questions with regard to the cyclist in the picture. 2.1   What force is acting down?
2.2   What force is balancing it ?
2.3   What is the advantage of using rubber                      tyres?
2.4   Why does he need a greater effort to                        climb?
2.5   Why does he need a greater effort if he were to maintain a higher constant                  speed?
2 x5 = 10 marks.
1. Weight.    2. Support force.  3. To increase friction.
4. To overcome the weight.   5. At high speed air resistance is high.
Q.3.0
Following is a list of 20 words.
Select them under three categories as Matter,  Energy, Force.

Glass,   wood,  ,  Flame, Oxygen, Drag,  Light.  Electricity, sound, Heat,
Radio wave, Plant,         - Throw,  Lift,  Tension, Weight, Thrust, Press,                        repel.  Thread,   Rubber,
20 marks.
Matter:-  Glass,  wood,  Flame,  Oxygen. Plant,  Rubber. Thread,
Energy:-  Light, Heat, Radio waves, Sound, Throw,
Forces:-   Drag,  Throw.  Lift,  Tension, weight, Thrust, Press, repel,

Q 4.0
A train, 100 m. long has a velocity of 80 km/h.
4.1 covert this speed to meters per second.
4.2  What time will it take to pass a signal post?
4.3  What time will it take to pass a flat form 80 m long?
4.4  If the train stops in 30 seconds what is the negative acceleration.
4.5  If the train has to pass another train, of the same length and speed,  in the opposite direction,  what is the time it will take

5 x 6 = 30 marks.
The distance 80 km =  80 x 1000 m.
Time 1 hour  .........=  60 x 60 seconds.
In 60 x 60 s the distance =   80 x 1000 m
In 1 second  the distance =  80 x 1000
60 x 60
That is   =  800 36 m
Speed    = 22.22 ms-1.
4.2      22.2 m take only  = 1 second.
Time for 1 meter    =  1 /  22.2  s.
Time for  100 meter . =  100 / 22,2 s.
=4.5 seconds.

4.3        Total distance  =  100 + 80 m.
The to  travel 180 m =  180 m. / 22.2 s.
=  8.1 s s

4.4       Acceleration      = Change in velocity ÷  Time.
=  80 ms-1 ÷  30 s.
= 2.67 ms-2.
4.5      Relative speed of two trains =  22.2 ms-1 + 22.2 ms-1.
44.4 meters take  = 1 second.
200 m take   =  (1/44.4) x 200 s.
= 4.5 seconds.

v= d/t