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Timeline 20th C. First half.

posted May 19, 2015, 9:08 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated May 21, 2015, 12:21 PM ]
 tHE FIRST cOMPUTER ENIAC        It had over 17000 electronic valves.


This will cover the most important events and theories of science from 1900 to 1950. A few important names etc, will be linked to get more information from this site.

Month

Name

Event / occurence

                                                 
                 1900             
Man flies.

Jan.

Jan Rather

Described the ‘half life’ of Radioactivity.

Apr

Paul Villard

Discovered alpha rays.

Jul.

Count Zeppelin.Ger.

First Zeppelin flight over a lake about 20km/h speed.

Dec.

Max Plank

Introduced the view of discrete packets of energy. Quanta.

       Radiation                1901              blood grouping

Jan.

T. Montgomery

Described ‘meiosis’. A type of cell division.

Nov.

Aloi Alzheimer

Recognised the disease Alzheimer.

 

K Landstein.

Identifies A and B blood groups.

Dec.

Rutherford & Soddy.

Explained radioactive decay.

    Wireless signals  1902               Cars rolling

Jan.

N Stubble field

Sent the first wireless sound signal.

Feb,

Stanley motors

Developed the steam car.

Aiming space           1903               Powered flights

Mar.

M. Tsvet

Introduced chromatography.

 

K Tsiolowski. Rus.

Described the possibility of using rockets in space.

Sep.

George Darwin

Showed that radioactivity heats the Earth.

 

Marie Curie

Gets the doctorate.

 

Rutherford

Elected to Royal society.

 

Hantaro Nagaoka

Developed the earliest published quasi-planetary model of the atom.

1904        Dawn of electronics

 

C Konning

Showed that fungi decomposes organic matter.

Mar.

J J Thomson

Introduced the plum pudding model of the atom.

June

E Maunder

Described the sun spot pattern.

Nov.

Br. patent


Thermionic diode valve.

Dec.

D Perrine

Discovered the 10th moon of Jupiter.

                                              1905         Miracle year of Einstein.

Jun.

A Einstein

Explained the ‘photo electric effect’.

July

A Einstein

Explained ‘Brownian motion’.

Sep.

A Einstein

Introduced the ‘Special theory of relativity’.

Oct

E. Wilson

Described XX and XY chromosomes in sex determination.

Nov

A Einstein

E = mc2

1906

 

R Oldham

Identified the P, primary and S, secondary waves in seismic waves due to earthquakes.

Dec.

R Fessenden

 Transmits first AM entertainment broadcast.

1907

Feb.

L De Forest

Patents the triode.

 

B Boltwood

Explain radioactive dating of minerals.

 

R Millikan & H Flecher

Oil drop method of measuring charge of an electron.

 

Rutherford

Returned to England to become professor of physics at Manchester University.

1908

Feb

 

Rutherford & Geiger

Introduce a method to ,measure radioactivity.

Jul.

H K Onnes

Liquefies helium.

 

W Ramsay &R Whytlaw

Discover Radon gas.

Aug.

Orville & Wilbur wright

Powered aircraft flight.

 

Er Rutherford&Geiger

Gold foil expt

Dec.

K Landsteiner&E Popper

Viral identification of Polio.

 

Rutherford

Gets the Nobel Prize

 

1909

Feb.

Ruther &T Royds

He recognised as alpha

May.

bayer

sulphonamide

 

S serenson

Introduced the pH. Scale to show acidity.

Jun.

Ruther

Gold leaf scattering was explained.

Dec

Baekelandt

Developed a synthetic material  later called Bakelite

 

Rutherford & T Boyd

Recognise alpha particles devoid of electrons.

1910

Jan

L de forest

Broadcasts the first live musical programme.

Jun.

J.H. Vincent

First effective Typoid vaccine

Sep.

Madam Curie

Discovered radium

Oct.

R.W wood

Obtained an Infra red photograph

1911

Jan

W bradford

Links epinephrine & stress

Feb

C F Kettering

Elect starter

Mar

Carl Bosch

Haber process

 

Rutherford

Identified the nucleus of an atom. Introduced the planetary model of atom.

Apr          

K onnes

Discovered superconductivity.

May

Boris &v zworykin

Transmits a scanned image using cathode ray tube.

Jul

Van den broek

Showed that  Nuclear charge indicates the place in Periodic table.

1912

Jan

Alfred wegener

Super continent and drifting of continents.

Apr.

W Friedrich & Knipping

X ray analysis of crystals

Sep.

Vesto  Sipher

Andromeda g moving away from sun

Nov.

W. Bragg

X ray diffraction of crystals.

 

Niels Bohr

Amalgamates the Atomic theory with the Maxwell quantum theory.

1913

Feb

F. Soddy

Introduced the term ‘isotope’.

Apr.

N Bohr

Quantum  model of atomic structure

 

Arthur Holmes

Calculated the Age of earth

Dec.

H Mosely

Gave a relationship between Atomic  number and x rays produced by them.

1914

Mar.

A Hustin

First blood transfusion from a person to another.

july

R Goddard

Patented a Solid rocket to be sent to space.

 

J.J. Thomson

Developed the Mass spectrometer

 

H Dale

Identified the hormone ‘acetylcholine’.

 

Rutherford

Suggested that  protons are together in the nucleus.

1915

Jan.

G Claude

Introduced the Neon discharge tube.

Mar.

us

Founded the NACA the predecessor to NASA.

 

Lowell obsevatory

Photographed pluto

Sep.

Einstein

Published the General theory of relativity wich predicted space time curvature.

 

Alfred Wegener

Introduced the theory of Continental drift

1916

Jan.

Royal army

First blood transfusion with stored blood.

Apr.

Gilbert

Described the chemical Bonds as due to electron sharing.

 

H Shapely

Described the Milkyway.

 

A Cushny

Explained how kidney filters urine.

 

F. d‘ Herelle

Identified ‘bacteriophages’.

 

P Langevin  Fr.

Echo sounding to detect sub

 

K. Schwarzchild

Used Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to define a black hole. Defined gravitational radius of black holes,

1917

 

Rutherford

Converted Nitrogen to Oxygen. Transmutation.

1918

 

H Shapely

Gave the dimensions of milkyway.

 

Langevin

Introduced ASDICS that led toRADAR.

Apr.

Rutherford

Suggested  that hydrogen ions are the elementary particles.

May.

A.Eddington

Tested the Theory of relativity

Jun.

I Langmuir

Explained the Co valent bond

Dec.

P Levens

Nucleotide comp of dna

1920

Jan.

NY times

Ridicules idea of solid rocket of Goddard.

Feb.

E Mellanby.

Rickets caused by  vitamin deficiency. Later showed as vitamin D.

Jun.

Rutherford

Coins the term ‘proton’ for the positively charged particle.

Aug.

A.Eddington

Explained that stars get energy by converting Hydrogen to Helium.

1921

Jul.

 

BCG vaccine was introduced.

Aug.

F banting & c best

Insulin discovery

Dec.

Otto loewi

Acetylcholine as neuro transmitter

1922

May.

Alex Oparin  Rus.

Suggested that Life evolved from non living matter.

 

Alex Friedman

A solution to Einstein’s field equation of expanding universe

1923

 

G Lewis

Introduced the Electron pair and base theory.

Sep.

L. de broglie

Showed that the Electrons  have wave properties

 

hubble

Andromeda is outside milkyway

1924

Feb.

U.S.

IBM. was founded

 

W Pauli

Exclusion principle.

 

Satyendra bose & Einstein.

Force carrying particles  ‘boson’

Nov.

L de Brogley.

Particle-wave theory

   

Dec.

E. Hubble. (Life photo)

Found that the Milky way and Andromeda galaxy are 2.5 million light years apart. This expanded the known Universe.

 

Fig.Astronomer Edwin Hubble looks though the eyepiece of the 100-inch telescope at California's Mt. Wilson Observatory, 1937.

1925

 Mar.

 J L Baird

Obtained TV images using a rotating disc.

 Jun.

L.Friedericia

 Discovered that night blind ness is due to lack of Vitamin A.

  Meteor expedition  Ger.
 Discovered the Mid Atlantic Ridge.
 Nov.W. Pauli
 Explained the Exclusion principle.

Month

Name

Event / occurence

1926

Jan.

E Schrodinger

Formulated quantum wave mechanics.

Feb.


Enrico Fermi

Explains how fundamental particles obey the exclusion principle.

Mar.

R Goddard

Launched the first liquid  fuel rocket.

Nov.

J Bernal

Crystallography photos.

Dec.

E Hubble

Classified galaxies.

1927

Jan.

Br & US

Trans Atlantic telephone service

Feb

W Heisenberg

Uncetainty principle.

Mar.

V Zworkina

Cathode ray TV

Apr.

Bell T.

Long distance  mechanical TV

 

J Lamiere

Decribes the expanding Universe.

Sep.

Phil Farnsworth

First electronic TV.

Dec

Anders Birger

Finds a fossilized tooth from Peking man.

1928

Jan.

Indonesia

Krakatoa  appears as a new island.

Feb.

Paul Dirac

Predicts anti matter.

 

L Baird

First Trans atlantic TV signal sent. First colour TV.

 

C Raman

Described the scattering of photons.

 

M Lowell & Booth

Portable pace maker.

Sep.

Alexander Fleming

Discovered penicillin.

 

A.S. Gyoryi

Discovered a new vitamin later named as Vit-C.

 

Fritz Vent

Discovered auxins.

1929

Jan.

Carl & G Cory

Explained how glucose is changed to lactic acid during exercise.

Mar.

Hubble

More evidence for an expanding universe.

Dec.

A Douglas

Tree ring dating.

1930

Jan.

P Dirac

Described Positron.

Apr.

E Bolten

Made synthetic rubber.

 

W Pauli

Predicts neutrinos.

1931

Jan.

E Lawrence

Used the first Cyclatron.

Mar.

G Ruska & M Knoll

Prototype of the electron microscope.

Aug.

K Jansky

Picked Radio waves from Milkyway.

 

Irene Joliot Curie

Obtained a new kind of rays  which found to be neutrons.

Nov.

Harold Urey

Discovered heavy Hydrogen.

1932

Jan.

W Heisenberg

Proton neutron model to explain isotopes.

 

C V Neil

Showed that electrons are obtained from water for photosynthesis.

Apr.

J Cockroft & E Walton

Split the nucleus of Lithium.

Aug.

C Anderson

Discovered positron.

 

J Oort

Found evidence for dark matter.

 

J B S Haldane

Unified genetics and theory of evolution.

1933

Feb.

F Zwiky

Produced evidence for dark matter.

Sep.

Rutherford

“No future in nuclear chemistry”.

 

Einstein

Flees Germany.

 

 

 

1934

Jan.

E Fermi

Achieved atomic fission.

Jul.

L.Scillard

Requests a patent for nuclear chain reaction.

Aug.

Otis & C Beebe

Dived 3028 feet in Bathysphere.

 

 

 

1935

Jan.

Charles Richter

Richter scale for Eartquakes.

Feb.

W Carothers &team

Pruced the synthetic material Nylon.

 

W M Stanley

Crystalized a virus.

 

 

 

1936

Feb.

Scillard

Gives atomic bomb patent to British admiralty.

June

S Neddermeyer &C Anderson

The particle muon.

July 

 H Selye

Describe stress as a medical condition.

Nov.

BBC

HD TV.

1937

Jan

C Perrier, E Segre.

First artificial element. Technetium.

Mar.

H Krebs

Citric acid keeps the cells alive.

May

Ger

Hindenberg air ship bursts into flames.

 

Dorethy Crawfoot,J Bernal

Structure of steroids using  X rays.

 

W Ashbury

X ray diffraction pattern of DNA.

 

 

 

1938

Jan

Pyotr Kapitsa Rus.

Super fluidity.

Feb

 

Nylon bristle tooth brush.

                     Dec.

Otto Hahn

Nuclear fission.

 

 

A live coelacanth found.

1939

Aug.

Einstein

writes to Rosevelt about making atomic bomb.

Dec.

K Hammer,J Bonner

Described photo periodism.

 

P Muller

Found that DDT can be used to kill insects.

1940

 

R Aldworth

Strength and structure of the Earth

Feb.

M Karmen, S Ruben

Discover  Carbon- 14.

Jun

Mc Millan, P Abelson.

Discover Neptunium.

 

Mc Millan, Seaborg

Synthsize Plutonium

 

 

 

 

 

 

1941

 

 

Medical trials of Pennicillin began.

 

Ray Mc Intyre

Styrofoam.

Dec

G Beedle,E Tatum

Show that genes act by enzymes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1942

Feb.

J Hedley

Detects radio waves from sun.

Sep.

 

Wide scale use of DDT.

Oct

H Alfven

Electro magnetic waves in liquids.

 

Werner von Braun

Test launch of V2 Rocket.

Dec

Enrico Fermi

First sustained Nuc reaction.

1943

Mar

Br

Construction of huge computer begins.

Summer

J Cousteau

Compressed air Aqualung

May

Woodward,Doeringg

Synthesized quinine

 

 

 

1945

Feb


Dorothy Hodgin

Described the structure of penicillin

Earlier

Miss Crawfoot. Third woman to get the Noble prize for chemistry.

Mar

J Marinsky,  Glendenin,Goryell

Discovered Romethium

Jul

US

Trinity test First Nuclear explosion.

Aug

US

Atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Oct

Arthur C Clarke.

Sri Lanka

Predicts geo-synchronous satellites.

1946

Feb

Br.

ENIAC computer

Jul

US

Atomic bomb test at sea.

Sep

 

Anti cancer chemo therapy

1947

 

 

First proton linear accelerator.

October

Bell craft

Flies faster than sound.

 

D Gabor

Holograms

 

Ohio

First micro wave oven sold

1948

Mar

R Feynman

Electro dynamic diagrams

Apr

 

WHO World health organisation. Established.

 

Albert 1

Monkey astronaut

Nov

New Zealand

Takahe  bird re discovered.

1949

Mar

Fred Hoyle

Coins the term BIG - Bang.

June

 

Rhesus monkey to space

Dec

J Arnold,W Libby

Radio carbon dating technique published.

1950

Jan

Truman

Orders development of H bomb

MAR

ENIAC

Weather prediction by computer

Aug.

M Calvin

How carbon is used in photosynthesis

Oct.

A Turin

Described artificial intelligence.

 

 

 

 

                                                      

 

 

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