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Timeline 20th C. 2nd Half

posted May 26, 2015, 11:22 PM by Upali Salpadoru   [ updated Jun 2, 2015, 12:26 AM ]

Marvelous achievements in Space, electronics  and medicine.

Month

Name

Event

1951

Feb.






J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly,


First Commercial,
Universal Automatic Computerial computer.


UNIVAC

Jul.

Dr.William Shokley Phd. UK/US.

Discovered the junction-transistor.

1952


Jul.


Mechanical heart bypass machine.

Cardio Pulmonary Bypass.

CPB

Figure shows an overhead view of using the machine.

Courtsey:- Texas Heart Institute.

Sep.

Charles Hufnago

Open heart surgery. Implants a heart valve.

 

Hershey Chase

Showed that DNA stores the genetic material.

Nov.

U.S.

Hydrogen bomb tested in North west Pacific.

 

U.S.

A team of surgeons successfully separated conjoined twins.

1953

Apr.

Watson, Crick.

Showed that DNA molecule is a double helix.

May.

U.S

Open heart surgery using the heart lung machine.

1954

Feb.

 

Field trial of anti- polio vaccime.

Mar.

U.S.

Hydrogen bomb test in Bikini Island.

May.

Boing

Unveiled the B 67-70.

Oct.

 

Conference on Units and Measures declared Kelvin as the standard unit to measure  

 

Basov Prokhorov

Described the MASER.

 

 

First kidney transplant.

1955

 

Clair Patterson

Calculated the age of Earth using radiometric data.

Apr.

 

Salk vaccine was approved.

Aug.

Louis Essen

First atomic clock.

Dec.

Joe Yijo (Java born.)

Found that human cells have 46 chromosomes.

1956

Sep.

 

Trans- Atlantic cable was laid. over 2200 miles.

 

IBM

Produced a computer with a hard disc.

1957

Jan.

Hamilton electric

First electronic watch.

Feb.

Jens Skoce

Discovered the pump action in nerve cells that use Sodium and potassium ions.

Jul.

 

International Atomic Energy Commission established.

Oct.



USSR

Vostok 1..Launched ‘Sputnik’.

First object sent to orbit in space by man.

 

 

First flight of Boeing 707 the first commercial jet.

Nov.

Gordon Gould

Described the LASER.

1958

Jan.

 

Sputnik falls back to Earth.

 

 

Explorer  Launched.

Jun.

Jan Donald

Produced a paper on the use of Ultra sound  for medical diagnostics.

Jul.

Messelson

Published a paper on DNA self replication.

 

U.S.

Congress established NASA.

Sep.

F Steward

Produced carrot from somatic cells. First true cloning.

 

Jack Kilby

Produced the first microchip.

1959

Apr.

Georges Mathe

Reported bone marrow transplant.

May.

 

Two living premates return to Earth after a space flight.

 

Max Perutz

Unravelled the structure of Haemoglobin.

Aug.

Min Chueh Chang

Achieved in-vitro fertilization in rabbit.

1960

Jan.

 

D Watch , Jacques Piccard descended into Marianas Trench. Deepest spot.

Apr.

U.S.

First weather satellite Tiros 1 launched.

Jul.

R Woodward

Artificial synthesis of chlorophyll.

Aug.

T Maiman

Developed the MASER.

1961

Feb.

 

Element Lawrencium was made.   260Lr103

Apr.

 

World Wild life Fund inaugurated. WWF.

          12/4


Yuri Gagarin

First man in space.Safely landed after orbiting the Earth.

May.

 

Space vehicle Veners passed close to Venus.

Nov.

 

Introduced a code for animal names.

1962

 

 

John Glenn

First American in space.

July

 

Communication satellite Telstar launched.

 

 

First Trans Atlantic TV siganals sent.

 

James Black

Invents Beta blockers for heart patients.

1963

Mar.

Thomas Starzi

First Liver transplant.

Jun.

James Hershey

First Lung transplant.

 


First Valentina Tereshkova woman in space.

 

Murray Gell-Mann, George Zwaig.

Independently introduced the quark theory of fundamental particles.

 

Bell group

Introduced the first punch button telephone.

Nov.

‘Surtsey’

A new volcanic island came up from the sea near Iceland. 2.7 km2   to begin with.

1964

May

Dr.Oscar Ratnoff,E Dave.

Explained the method of blood clotting.

 

A Penzias,R Wilson

Discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation. CMB.

Jun.

 

Discovered the first Black hole.

 

 

'Azidothymidine' developed for cancer was successfully used for HIV.

1965

Mar.

Alexey Leonov

First space walk.

May.

Alan Sandage

Discovered Radio silent quasars.

1966

June

Lynn Margulis (Mrs. Carl Sagan). US.

Endosymbiotic  theory. This concept postulates that chloroplasts and mitochondria are the result of years of evolution initiated by the endocytosis of bacteria and blue-green algae.

1967

 

W Jason,McKenzie. Br.

Proposed tectonic plate movements.

Aug.

 

First mobile intensive care unit.

Nov.

S Weinberg

Unified electromagnetic forces and weak nuclear forces.

 

 

A pulsar observed.

Dec.

Christian Bernard (SA)

First heart transplant. Patient Washinsky.

1968

 

Linear acceleration centre.

Found evidence for ‘quarks’.

 

R Feyn

Proposed a theory that recognised  sub atomic particles, quarks and gluons.

Jul.

US California

INTEL was founded.

 

 

Experiment to capture solar ‘neutrinos’.

1969

Mar.

 

Formaldehyde was discovered in outer space.

Apr.

D Liotta, Denton Cooley. Texas heart Institute

First artificial heart implanted. They replaced a dying man's heart with a mechanical heart  as a bridge for a transplant.

July



First men to land on moon. Apollo 11.

Neil Armstrong,

Buzz Aldrin.

Aug.

T Brock,H Freez.

Discovered bacteria living in hot springs.

Nov.

Dorothy Cockroft

Explained the structure of ‘insulin’.

1970

Jan.

 

Commencement of Jumbo jet service. Over 400 passengers.

Feb.

Japan

Launched the first satellite ‘Osmi’.

Apr.

China

Launched the first satellite ‘Fang-Hong’.

 

NASA

Aborted Apollo 13 mission.

22/4

 

Declared as the ‘Earth day’.

Jun.

H Temin,D Baltimore

Discovered reverse transcriptase.

Jul.

Donald Keck  at

‘Corning’.

Produced low less optical fibre suitable for communications.

Sep.

USSR

Luna 16 drifted to moon.

Nov.

Rover 11

To traverse the surface of mars.

Dec.

US

A space X’ ray observatory.

 

USSR

Venera 7 landed on Venus.

1971

Jan.

Busicom

First pocket calculator released.

Apr.

Alan Shepherd

Hits a golf ball on the moon.

 

 

A combine vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella licensed.

Jun.

Georgi Dobrovolski (left), Vladislav Volkov (right) and Viktor Patsayev (background) –USSR

After spending 23 days, a record, in the space station 3 cosmonauts died due to decompression. 

Jul.

Apollo 15

Third manned mission to moon.

Oct.

 

First brain scan of a human.

 

 

‘Mol’ added as a unit of measurement in the SI system.

 

Ray Tomlinson

First E – mail sent.

Nov.

NASA

Mariner 9 entered a Mars orbit.

 

Intel

Produced the first micro-processor.

1072

Feb.

USSR

Luna 20 lands on the moon.

Mar.

NASA

Pioneer 10 lifts off to Jupiter.

Apr.

 

Apollo 16 land on the moon.

May.

Astronauts

Discovered that Cygnus X has a hidden black- hole.

Aug

Magna….

First computer game.

Oct.

Paul Berg

Combined DNA from 2 viruses starting genetic engineering.

Nov.

Atari

Video game  Pong.

 

NASA

Apollo 17Lands on Moon.

 

Hamilton watch Co.

All electronic digital watch ‘Pulsar’  released.

Dec.

NASA

Apollo 17 lands on moon.

 

Vadic cor.

First practical modem.

1973

Apr.

M Cooper

First telephone call from a hand held phone.

 

CERN

Developed the touch screen for computers.

May

 

Sky Lab launched.

 

 

Patent obtained for PET plastic bottles.

Sep.

Vint Cerf, R Khan.

Introduced the International Internet Protocol suite. (TCP/IP)

Oct.

Volcov, Soroka

Proposed super gravity. SUGRA for short) is a theory that combines the principles of super symmetry and general relativity.

Nov.

 

Transgenic organism created.

 

S Salter

A device to harness wave energy devised.

1974

Feb.

NASA

Mariner 10 approached Venus.

 

USSR

Mars 4 approached Mars.

Mar.

Stephen Hawkins

Produced evidence for sub atomic particle emanation from Black-holes.

 

Mariner 10

Approached Mercury.

Apr.

R Jaenich, Beatrice

Introduced DNA from a virus into a mouse.

Jun.

USSR

Launched the third space station Salyut 3.

 

Warning

CFC is depleting  Ozone in the atmosphere.

Nov.

 

An explosion of new sub atomic particles.

Coded as November explosion.

 

 

Discovery of Lucy in Ethiopia. A humanoid that lived 3.2 million years ago. Australopithecus aferensis.

Dec.

NASA

Pion 11 reached Jupiter.

1975

 

IBM

First commercial LASER printer.

9th

India

Launched the satellite ‘Aryabhata’.

June.

Sony

'Betamax’ Home video recording service.

July.

US - USSR

Appolo hugs Soyuz. Russian American capsules dock in space.

Aug.

Wallace Broeker

Coins the term ‘global warming’

Oct.

 

Venera 9 lands on Veenus.

Nov.

B Mendelbrot.

Coined the term ‘Fractal’ in mathematics.

Dec.

S Sasson

Takes the first digital photos.

1976

Jan.

Br, Fr.

Concorde, super sonic airliner started service.

Mar.

Richard Dawkins

Published ‘Self gene’.

July.

 

Viking landed on Mars.

 

Steve Jobs,S Wozniac,R Wayne.

Apple computers marketed. Apple 1.

 

 

Ebola virus appear.

Sep.

Shugart Associate

Produced the floppy disc drive.

 

JVC

Introduced the VHS  video system.

 

Seymour Cracy

Developed the super computer.

1977

Feb.

 

Hydrothermal vents discovered near Galapagos ridge.

 

Fred Sanger

Unraveled the Genome sequence.

Apr.

 

Telephone communication via optical cables.

Jul.

R Domadian

First full body MRI scan.

Aug.

R Ehman

Ohio state University Radio Telescope detected an un explained signal believed to be from space. Wow! Signal.

 

 

Gossamer condor’ A human powered aircraft.

Oct.

E Barghorn, A Knoll.

Discovered  3.4 million yrs.old fossils of bacteria.

1978

Elite for the

US ……..NAVSTAR

Constellation

Cluster of satellites that provides location and time information to anyone with  a GPS. receiver.  At least four sats will be available at any time to any spot on Earth. US maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone

 

Mary Leaky.

3.6 million yr old  Foot print fossils of a biped discovered in Tanzania.

July.

R Edward, P Steptoe

Performed IVF. At Oldham General Hospital.

Sep.

 

Genetech Bacteria to produce insulin.

 

NASA

Launched Einstein X’ray telescope.

1979

Jan.

Bell Co.

Unix 7 Computer system.

Mar.

NASA

Voyager 1 closest approach to Jupiter.

 

 

Three mile nuclear plant melt down. People evacuated up to 8 km.

May

 

Astronauts got evidence for

June

Dr.  Paul Mc Cready co.

Gossamer albatross crossed English channel.

Jul.

Sony

Portable audio cassette player –Walkman.

 

 

Voyager 2 approached Jupiter.

Sep.

 

Pioneer 2 passed Saturn.

Oct.

J Lovelock

A new look at life on Earth.

Dec.

ESA and Areane

First Ariane rocket.

1980

Jan.

Alan Gath

Cosmic theory of inflation a refinement to Big bang theory.

May.

World Health Assembly

Announced the eradication of small pox.

Jun.

L Alvarez

A theory for the extinction of dinosaurs.

Jul.

 

Cholesterol reducing Lovastatin from fungus Aspergillus terres.

Nov.

NASA

Voyager 1 approaches Saturn.

1981

 Apr. Artificial skin for burn victims tested.

     3/

 

Osborne 1 Portable computer produced.

    12/

NASA

Re-usable space shuttle introduced.
    Apr.
 Xerox star
First computer with menu,icons and mouse.
    May
R Feynman
 Lays down foundation for quantum computers.
    Jul.
M Evans,M Kaufman
 Cultured p[luripotent cells from mouse embryos.
   
    Aug.
Microsoft
MS-Dos operating system for computers.
 NASAVoyager 2 sent images of Saturn.
    12/
IBM
Introduced a very successful computer.
    Nov.
 Epson HX-20
First lap-top.
    Dec.
US.
Vaccine for Hepatitis approved.
  Miss. Gail Martin
Cultured pluripotent cells and named the embryonic stem cells.
                          1982
 
 Jan. Commodore 64. Personal computer.
 Feb.Intel
Micro-processorwith one hundred thousand transistors.
 Apr.Dr. S Prusiner.
Discovered 'Prions'.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are  the most notable central nervoussystem degenerative disorders caused by prion

 May
Cancer causing geneidnetified. Oncogene.
 July.Weather phenomenon
El- Nino recognised.
 27/Washington DC.
AIDS gets it's name.
 Oct.Sony
Released a commercial CD player.
  MIDI.This describes the process of playing music just as sheet music: there are MIDI Messages describe, note, time, tempo, instrument and relative volume.

 Dec. JarvicPermanent Artificial heart given to Barney Clerk.
                                  1983 
 Jan. 1/
 Switching on of modern Internet.
TCP/IP
 19/Apple
'Lisa' Home computer with a graphical user interface.
 Jan.CERN
Discovered sub atomic particle w-boson.
 May.CERN
Discovered  z- Bosons.
 JuneBarry Marshal, Robert Warren.
Discovered Helico bacter pylori. Probably causing gastric ulcers.
 Oct. 3/
Motorola
First wireless telephone call.
   21/
 Meter'  Defined as the distance light travels in a fraction of a second 1/299,792.458.
                                 1984
 
 Jan.Steve Jobs,
Introduced the Mckintosh computer.
 Feb.B Mc Candless.
Un-tethered space walk out of Challenger.
 Apr. Discovery of the AIDS causing virus.
 July.Kary Mullis
Presented the Polymerase chain reaction.
 25/
First woman to take a Space walk was Svetlana Savitskaya. .
 Sep.Alec Jeffereys.
Discovered DNA profiling.
 
 1985
 
 May.Antarctic Survey
Discovered the decline of the Ozone concentration in the atmosphere.
 June.Team led by Colin Masters
Analyzed the plaque coat in Alzeimer causing cells.
 Oct. First case where DNA profiling was used.
 18/M Caruthers.
Found a way to build DNA sequences.
 Nov.Sussex and Rice Universities.

.
Discovered a strange form of Carbon.
'BuckMinster Fullerine'.
  20/
Microsoft
 MS - Windows1.0 introduced.
                                 1986
 
  Harold Kroto,Robert Carl and Richard Smelley. Shared the Noble prize for discovering Bucky ball.
 Jan.NASA
Voyager 2 closest approach to Uranus.
   28/
NASA
Space shuttle Challenger Disaster.
7 Astronauts perished.

 Feb.USSR
'Mir' Space station launched.
 Mar.France
Field trials of Gentec engineered plants.
   Space probes investigate Hayle's Comet.
 Apr. UkraineNuclear accident in Chernobyll.
 Sep.IBM
Discovered High temperature Super conductivity.
 Dec.IBM
Invented the Atomic Force Microscope.
                            1987
 
   
 Mar. An AIDS treatment approved.
 NovGeneral Motors
'Sunraycer' car wins the race, Solar Challengerheld in Australia to develop solar technology for cars.
  Laser using eye surgery.
                            1988 
 Apr 1
Stephen Hawkins
Writes "A brief History of Time".
 May 16
US surgeon general
Reported Nicotine as addictive as heroin.
 June 23
J hansen
Warned the US senate about Global warming.
 Nov. 1
Morris worm
First computer virus.
 Netherland
 Second country to join Intyernet.
 Dec.UN
Inaugurates Inter government Panel on Climate change.
                                    1989 
 Feb. New satellites for GPS.
 Mar.Tim Barnes Lee. Br.
Wrote the blue print www HTML.
  Discovery of magneto resistence for data storing.
 Aug.25NASA
Voyager was closest to Neptune 12 years after launch.
 OctHandyside
Screening of embryos before implanting.
  1990 
 Feb 14
NASA
Voyager 1 photographed the solar system exxcluding only Mercury and mars.
 Apr. Human Genome project launched.
     24
NASA
Hubble Space Telescope launched.
  General Instruments.
Introduced HDTV
 Sep. Archie.
First Internet search engine.
   Gene Therapy commenced.
   15/
NASA
Magellan started 3D mapping of Venus.
 Dec.Seigi Ogawa
Found a method to identify active regions of the brain using MRI.
 25/Tim Barnes Lee
World Wide Web commenced. www.
    1991
 
 MaySony
Digital mini-disc audio format.
 JuneSumio Lijama
Discovered Carbon nano tubes.
 19Rojer Billings US.
First Hydrogen fuel cells.
 Aug.CERN
Started the first web-page.
 Sep. MexicoCHICXULB crater disc discovered. Diameter 110 miles.
  1992 
 Jan. Planets discovered out side Solar system. exo-planets.
 Apr 23
 Seeds of Galaxy formation discovered.
 June 3
Rio de Janeiro.
172 countries discussed sustainability at the Earth Summikt.
 Sep.NASA
Reported the unusual increase of thw Ozone hole.
 Hitachi
Developed the high resolution Liquid Crystal Display.  LCD.
   First birth conceived by direct injection of sperm into an egg.
  1993 
  BlockfordReleased the micro processor controlled prosthetic knee.
 Dec.  Convention on Bio-diversity.
  1994 
 Mar.UN.
Convention on Climate change effective.s
 May 21
  US.
 GM tomato approved for sale.
 July Fragments of comet Shoemaker crashed on Jupiter.
 Dec.Jeffrey Friedman's team
Discovered 'Leptin".
  1995 
 Jan. 17/
 Patent filed for a wireless capsule endoscopy.
 Apr.
NASA
Hubble Space Telescope showed star formation in progress.
 May.Ed Witten US.
Introduced the M- theory based on unifying string theory and super symmetry.
 June.Colorado University.
Obtained Bose-Einstein condensate. A special state of matter that can be reached near absolute zero. Predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein.
 July.NASA
Probe to Jupiter,
 28 First sequencing of a bacterial genome.
 Sep.CERN
Discovered Anti atoms.


Discovery of first confirmed exo- planet.
 Dec. 
NASA
 Galileo orbits Jupiter.
  HST Sent deep field images of high quality.

1996

 Jan. USB convention adopted.
 Feb.
 Roslin Institute.   ScotlandBirth of Dolly  A cloned mammal.
 June. First artificial heart implanted.
 Aug. A meteorite from Mars may contain evidence of life.
 Sep. Nuclear test Ban Treaty.
 Nov.

Dr.Shuji Nakamura. Nobel Laureate.
Discovered low powered blue laser. This helped to produce bright white light at a low cost.
  DVD discs and DVD platers.
  1997 
 Mar.
Standard for cable modem that give broad band to internet.
  IBM'Deep Blue' computer was able to beat Garry Kasperov, the wold chess champion. 2:1. (3 drawn)
  Glowing mice produced. They had a green fluorescent protein.
 June "Wi-Fi' Wireless net working protocol.
 Sep. Google. The company registered.
                                          1998 
 Mar.  MP 3 Player
 Apr. Demonstration of a quantum computer.
 May  First Robot assisted heart by pass op.
 Sep. AstronomersDiscovered that Universe is accelerating.
  Discovered a super massive black-hole at the centre of our Galaxy.
 OctADSL
 
 Nov. First section for International Space Station launched.
  James Thomson
Embryonic stem cells cultured.
                                1999 
 JanAnjelo Vescovi
Obtained blood cells from stem cells of mice.
 Feb. NASAStar dust mission' Sent to Asteroid 5535.
 Apr  Graph showing rise of average temperature of the world.
 July Lunar prospector to explore Lunar North pole.
 Dec. Ericson. Released 'Blue tooth' Wireless net working system.
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